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      Regular consumption of soft drinks is associated with type 2 diabetes incidence in Mexican adults: findings from a prospective cohort study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Although high consumption of soft drinks has been associated with excess of type 2 diabetes risk, the strength of this association in the Mexican population, where a type 2 diabetes genetic susceptibility has been well established, has been scarcely studied. This study aimed to estimate the risk of type 2 diabetes due to soft drinks consumption in a cohort of Mexicans.

          Methods

          We used data on 1445 participants from the Health Workers Cohort Study, a prospective cohort conducted in Cuernavaca, Mexico. Soft drinks consumption was assessed with a semi-quantitative 116-item food frequency questionnaire. Incident type 2 diabetes was defined as self-report of physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes, fasting glucose > 126 mg/dl, or hypoglycemic medication at any examination. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models.

          Results

          With a total of 9526.2 person-years of follow-up, 109 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were observed. Type 2 diabetes incidence rate was 7.6, 11.0, and 17.1 per 1000 person-years across levels of soft drinks consumption of < 1, 1–4, and ≥ 5 servings/week, respectively ( p < 0.001 for trend). The intake of ≥5 soft drinks/week was significantly associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (HR 1.9 95% CI:1.0–3.5) compared with consumption of < 1/week (p-trend = 0.040). The HR was attenuated by further adjustment for body mass index (HR 1.5 95%CI:0.8–2.8) and abdominal obesity (HR 1.6 95%CI:0.8–3.0).

          Conclusions

          The consumption of soft drinks was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in a cohort of Mexican adults. Our results further support recommendations to limit soft drinks intake to address the growing diabetes epidemic in Mexico.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12937-020-00642-9.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women.

          Sugar-sweetened beverages like soft drinks and fruit punches contain large amounts of readily absorbable sugars and may contribute to weight gain and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but these relationships have been minimally addressed in adults. To examine the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight change and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Prospective cohort analyses conducted from 1991 to 1999 among women in the Nurses' Health Study II. The diabetes analysis included 91,249 women free of diabetes and other major chronic diseases at baseline in 1991. The weight change analysis included 51,603 women for whom complete dietary information and body weight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999. We identified 741 incident cases of confirmed type 2 diabetes during 716,300 person-years of follow-up. Weight gain and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Those with stable consumption patterns had no difference in weight gain, but weight gain over a 4-year period was highest among women who increased their sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption from 1 or fewer drinks per week to 1 or more drinks per day (multivariate-adjusted means, 4.69 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 4.20 kg for 1995 to 1999) and was smallest among women who decreased their intake (1.34 and 0.15 kg for the 2 periods, respectively) after adjusting for lifestyle and dietary confounders. Increased consumption of fruit punch was also associated with greater weight gain compared with decreased consumption. After adjustment for potential confounders, women consuming 1 or more sugar-sweetened soft drinks per day had a relative risk [RR] of type 2 diabetes of 1.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-2.36; P or =1 drink per day compared with <1 drink per month, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.33-3.03; P =.001). Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with a greater magnitude of weight gain and an increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes in women, possibly by providing excessive calories and large amounts of rapidly absorbable sugars.
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            Food-based validation of a dietary questionnaire: the effects of week-to-week variation in food consumption.

            The reproducibility and validity of responses for 55 specific foods and beverages on a self-administered food frequency questionnaire were evaluated. One hundred and seventy three women from the Nurses' Health Study completed the questionnaire twice approximately 12 months apart and also recorded their food consumption for seven consecutive days, four times during the one-year interval. For the 55 foods, the mean of correlation coefficients between frequencies of intake for first versus second questionnaire was 0.57 (range = 0.24 for fruit punch to 0.93 for beer). The mean of correlation coefficients between the dietary records and first questionnaire was 0.44 (range = 0.09 for yellow squash to 0.83 for beer and tea) and between the dietary records and the second questionnaire was 0.52 (range = 0.08 for spinach to 0.90 for tea). Ratios of within- to between-person variance for the 55 foods were computed using the mean four one-week dietary records for each person as replicate measurements. For most foods this ratio was greater than 1.0 (geometric mean of ratios = 1.88), ranging from 0.25 (skimmed milk) to 14.76 (spinach). Correlation coefficients comparing questionnaire and dietary record for the 55 foods were corrected for the within-person variation (mean corrected value = 0.55 for dietary record versus first questionnaire and 0.66 versus the second). Mean daily amounts of each food calculated by the questionnaire and by the dietary record were also compared; the observed differences suggested that responses to the questionnaire tended to over-represent socially desirable foods. This analysis documents the validity and reproducibility of the questionnaire for measuring specific foods and beverages, as well as the large within-person variation for food intake measured by dietary records. Differences in the degree of validity for specific foods revealed in this type of analysis can be useful in improving questionnaire design and in interpreting findings from epidemiological studies that use the instrument.
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              Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction

              Objectives To examine the prospective associations between consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice with type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes from consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in the United States and United Kingdom. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources and eligibility PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge for prospective studies of adults without diabetes, published until February 2014. The population attributable fraction was estimated in national surveys in the USA, 2009-10 (n=4729 representing 189.1 million adults without diabetes) and the UK, 2008-12 (n=1932 representing 44.7 million). Synthesis methods Random effects meta-analysis and survey analysis for population attributable fraction associated with consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Results Prespecified information was extracted from 17 cohorts (38 253 cases/10 126 754 person years). Higher consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, by 18% per one serving/day (95% confidence interval 9% to 28%, I2 for heterogeneity=89%) and 13% (6% to 21%, I2=79%) before and after adjustment for adiposity; for artificially sweetened beverages, 25% (18% to 33%, I2=70%) and 8% (2% to 15%, I2=64%); and for fruit juice, 5% (−1% to 11%, I2=58%) and 7% (1% to 14%, I2=51%). Potential sources of heterogeneity or bias were not evident for sugar sweetened beverages. For artificially sweetened beverages, publication bias and residual confounding were indicated. For fruit juice the finding was non-significant in studies ascertaining type 2 diabetes objectively (P for heterogeneity=0.008). Under specified assumptions for population attributable fraction, of 20.9 million events of type 2 diabetes predicted to occur over 10 years in the USA (absolute event rate 11.0%), 1.8 million would be attributable to consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (population attributable fraction 8.7%, 95% confidence interval 3.9% to 12.9%); and of 2.6 million events in the UK (absolute event rate 5.8%), 79 000 would be attributable to consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (population attributable fraction 3.6%, 1.7% to 5.6%). Conclusions Habitual consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, independently of adiposity. Although artificially sweetened beverages and fruit juice also showd positive associations with incidence of type 2 diabetes, the findings were likely to involve bias. None the less, both artificially sweetened beverages and fruit juice were unlikely to be healthy alternatives to sugar sweetened beverages for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Under assumption of causality, consumption of sugar sweetened beverages over years may be related to a substantial number of cases of new onset diabetes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                nancy.lopez@insp.mx
                Journal
                Nutr J
                Nutr J
                Nutrition Journal
                BioMed Central (London )
                1475-2891
                20 November 2020
                20 November 2020
                2020
                : 19
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.415771.1, ISNI 0000 0004 1773 4764, Center for Population Health Research, , National Institute of Public Health, ; Cuernavaca, Morelos Mexico
                [2 ]GRID grid.9486.3, ISNI 0000 0001 2159 0001, Research Center on Policies, Population and Health, Faculty of Medicine, , National Autonomous University of Mexico, ; Mexico City, Mexico
                [3 ]GRID grid.419157.f, ISNI 0000 0001 1091 9430, Epidemiological Research and Health Services Unit, , Mexican Institute of Social Security, ; Cuernavaca, Morelos Mexico
                Article
                642
                10.1186/s12937-020-00642-9
                7678283
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003141, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología;
                Award ID: 7876, 87783, 262233, 26267M, SALUD-2010-01-139796, SALUD-2011-01-161930, and CB-2013-01-221628
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Nutrition & Dietetics

                soft drinks, type 2 diabetes, adults, cohort, mexico

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