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      Maternal BMI and Glycemia Impact the Fetal Metabolome

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVE

          We used targeted metabolomics to determine associations of maternal BMI and glucose levels with cord blood metabolites and associations of cord blood metabolites with newborn birth weight and adiposity in mother-offspring dyads.

          RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

          Targeted metabolomic assays were performed on cord blood plasma samples from European ancestry, Afro-Caribbean, Thai, and Mexican American newborns (400 from each ancestry group) whose mothers participated in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study and who had anthropometric measurements at birth.

          RESULTS

          Meta-analysis across the four cohorts demonstrated significant correlation of all cord blood metabolites analyzed with maternal fasting levels of the same metabolites at ∼28 weeks’ gestation except for triglycerides, asparagine/aspartate, arginine, and the acylcarnitine C14-OH/C12-DC. Meta-analyses also demonstrated that maternal BMI with or without adjustment for maternal glucose was associated with cord blood metabolites including the branched-chain amino acids and their metabolites as well as phenylalanine. One-hour but not fasting glucose was associated with cord blood 3-hydroxybutyrate and its carnitine ester, a medium-chain acylcarnitine, and glycerol. A number of cord blood metabolites were associated with newborn birth weight and sum of skinfolds, including a negative association of triglycerides and positive association of 3-hydroxybutyrate, its carnitine ester, and serine with both newborn outcomes.

          CONCLUSIONS

          Maternal BMI and glycemia are associated with different components of the newborn metabolome, consistent with their independent effects on newborn size at birth. Maternal BMI is associated with a newborn metabolic signature characteristic of insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes in adults.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis.

          The extent of heterogeneity in a meta-analysis partly determines the difficulty in drawing overall conclusions. This extent may be measured by estimating a between-study variance, but interpretation is then specific to a particular treatment effect metric. A test for the existence of heterogeneity exists, but depends on the number of studies in the meta-analysis. We develop measures of the impact of heterogeneity on a meta-analysis, from mathematical criteria, that are independent of the number of studies and the treatment effect metric. We derive and propose three suitable statistics: H is the square root of the chi2 heterogeneity statistic divided by its degrees of freedom; R is the ratio of the standard error of the underlying mean from a random effects meta-analysis to the standard error of a fixed effect meta-analytic estimate, and I2 is a transformation of (H) that describes the proportion of total variation in study estimates that is due to heterogeneity. We discuss interpretation, interval estimates and other properties of these measures and examine them in five example data sets showing different amounts of heterogeneity. We conclude that H and I2, which can usually be calculated for published meta-analyses, are particularly useful summaries of the impact of heterogeneity. One or both should be presented in published meta-analyses in preference to the test for heterogeneity. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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            Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

            It is controversial whether maternal hyperglycemia less severe than that in diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A total of 25,505 pregnant women at 15 centers in nine countries underwent 75-g oral glucose-tolerance testing at 24 to 32 weeks of gestation. Data remained blinded if the fasting plasma glucose level was 105 mg per deciliter (5.8 mmol per liter) or less and the 2-hour plasma glucose level was 200 mg per deciliter (11.1 mmol per liter) or less. Primary outcomes were birth weight above the 90th percentile for gestational age, primary cesarean delivery, clinically diagnosed neonatal hypoglycemia, and cord-blood serum C-peptide level above the 90th percentile. Secondary outcomes were delivery before 37 weeks of gestation, shoulder dystocia or birth injury, need for intensive neonatal care, hyperbilirubinemia, and preeclampsia. For the 23,316 participants with blinded data, we calculated adjusted odds ratios for adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with an increase in the fasting plasma glucose level of 1 SD (6.9 mg per deciliter [0.4 mmol per liter]), an increase in the 1-hour plasma glucose level of 1 SD (30.9 mg per deciliter [1.7 mmol per liter]), and an increase in the 2-hour plasma glucose level of 1 SD (23.5 mg per deciliter [1.3 mmol per liter]). For birth weight above the 90th percentile, the odds ratios were 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32 to 1.44), 1.46 (1.39 to 1.53), and 1.38 (1.32 to 1.44), respectively; for cord-blood serum C-peptide level above the 90th percentile, 1.55 (95% CI, 1.47 to 1.64), 1.46 (1.38 to 1.54), and 1.37 (1.30 to 1.44); for primary cesarean delivery, 1.11 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.15), 1.10 (1.06 to 1.15), and 1.08 (1.03 to 1.12); and for neonatal hypoglycemia, 1.08 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1.19), 1.13 (1.03 to 1.26), and 1.10 (1.00 to 1.12). There were no obvious thresholds at which risks increased. Significant associations were also observed for secondary outcomes, although these tended to be weaker. Our results indicate strong, continuous associations of maternal glucose levels below those diagnostic of diabetes with increased birth weight and increased cord-blood serum C-peptide levels. Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              The Combination of Estimates from Different Experiments

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                diacare
                dcare
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                American Diabetes Association
                0149-5992
                1935-5548
                July 2017
                13 June 2017
                : 40
                : 7
                : 902-910
                Affiliations
                1Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL
                2Sarah W. Stedman Nutrition and Metabolism Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC
                3Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Durham, NC
                4Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: William L. Lowe Jr., wlowe@ 123456northwestern.edu .
                Article
                2452
                10.2337/dc16-2452
                5481987
                28637888
                © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

                Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at http://www.diabetesjournals.org/content/license.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 45, Pages: 9
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000062;
                Award ID: R01-DK-095963
                Funded by: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100009633;
                Award ID: R01-HD34242
                Award ID: R01-HD34243
                Categories
                Epidemiology/Health Services Research

                Endocrinology & Diabetes

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