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      A red queen model of personality

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          Abstract

          Genetics underpins many ways in which individuals differ. The purpose of this paper is to advance a model with testable hypotheses regarding the cause of the genetic basis of personality. We proceed by developing the suggestion that diversity in personality genes evolved to constrain parasitic elements of culture and discuss its implications. In particular, a critical test of this hypothesis is whether personality genes show fluctuating linkage disequilibrium and a dispersed distribution throughout the genome. It is further suggested that this Red Queen process has facilitated the evolution of intelligence and allowed a higher mutation rate in relevant genes. The model’s empirical predictions are discussed in the context of alternative explanations, including those regarding intragenomic conflict, economics, and heterozygote advantage.

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          Most cited references 79

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          Sex versus Non-Sex versus Parasite

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            Impulsivity as a determinant and consequence of drug use: a review of underlying processes.

            Impulsive behaviors are closely linked to drug use and abuse, both as contributors to use and as consequences of use. Trait impulsivity is an important determinant of drug use during development, and in adults momentary 'state' increases in impulsive behavior may increase the likelihood of drug use, especially in individuals attempting to abstain. Conversely, acute and chronic effects of drug use may increase impulsive behaviors, which may in turn facilitate further drug use. However, these effects depend on the behavioral measure used to assess impulsivity. This article reviews data from controlled studies investigating different measures of impulsive behaviors, including delay discounting, behavioral inhibition and a newly proposed measure of inattention. Our findings support the hypothesis that drugs of abuse alter performance across independent behavioral measures of impulsivity. The findings lay the groundwork for studying the cognitive and neurobiological substrates of impulsivity, and for future studies on the role of impulsive behavior as both facilitator and a result of drug use.
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              A two-dimensional neuropsychology of defense: fear/anxiety and defensive distance.

              We present in this paper a picture of the neural systems controlling defense that updates and simplifies Gray's "Neuropsychology of Anxiety". It is based on two behavioural dimensions: 'defensive distance' as defined by the Blanchards and 'defensive direction'. Defensive direction is a categorical dimension with avoidance of threat corresponding to fear and approach to threat corresponding to anxiety. These two psychological dimensions are mapped to underlying neural dimensions. Defensive distance is mapped to neural level, with the shortest defensive distances involving the lowest neural level (periaqueductal grey) and the largest defensive distances the highest neural level (prefrontal cortex). Defensive direction is mapped to separate parallel streams that run across these levels. A significant departure from prior models is the proposal that both fear and anxiety are represented at all levels. The theory is presented in a simplified form that does not incorporate the interactions that must occur between non-adjacent levels of the system. It also requires expansion to include the dimension of escapability of threat. Our current development and these proposed future extensions do not change the core concepts originally proposed by Gray and, we argue, demonstrate their enduring value.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                2050
                Evolution, Mind and Behaviour
                EMB
                Akadémiai Kiadó
                2560-0982
                December 2018
                : 16
                : 1
                : 1-36
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] University of New South Wales , Australia
                [ 2 ]Hawksbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University , Australia
                Author notes
                [*]

                Corresponding author: Douglas Roy; E-mail: droy8625@ 123456uni.sydney.edu.au

                Article
                10.1556/2050.2018.0001
                © 2018 The Authors

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Pages: 36
                Categories
                Original article

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