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      Pooled analysis of tanezumab efficacy and safety with subgroup analyses of phase III clinical trials in patients with osteoarthritis pain of the knee or hip

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          A pooled analysis was conducted to evaluate tanezumab efficacy and safety in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), including subgroup analyses of at-risk patients with diabetes, severe OA symptoms, and those aged ≥65 years.

          Patients and methods

          Data from phase III placebo-controlled clinical trials of patients with moderate-to-severe OA of the knee or hip were pooled to evaluate tanezumab efficacy (four trials) and safety (nine trials). Patients received intravenous tanezumab, tanezumab plus an oral NSAID (naproxen, celecoxib, or diclofenac), active comparator (naproxen, celecoxib, diclofenac, or oxycodone), or placebo. Efficacy assessments included change from baseline to week 16 in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and physical function scores, Patient’s Global Assessment (PGA) of OA, and percentage of patients with ≥30%, ≥50%, ≥70%, and ≥90% improvement in WOMAC pain. Safety assessments included adverse event (AE) documentation and physical and neurologic examinations.

          Results

          Tanezumab significantly improved all efficacy end points in the overall population. Efficacy in at-risk patient subgroups was similar to the overall population. Incidence of AEs was highest in the tanezumab plus NSAID group and lowest in the placebo group. Incidence of AEs in the tanezumab monotherapy and active comparator groups was similar. Overall incidence of AEs was similar across subgroups. AEs of abnormal peripheral sensation were more frequently reported in tanezumab-treated patients compared with placebo or active comparator. Patients receiving active comparator had a slightly higher incidence of AEs suggestive of postganglionic sympathetic dysfunction.

          Conclusion

          Tanezumab consistently provided significant improvement of pain, physical function, and PGA in individuals with OA, including patients with diabetes, severe OA symptoms, or aged ≥65 years. No increased safety risk was observed in at-risk patient subgroups.

          Trial registration

          NCT00733902, NCT00744471, NCT00830063, NCT00863304, NCT00809354, NCT00864097, NCT00863772, NCT01089725, NCT00985621.

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          Most cited references 31

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          OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, Part II: OARSI evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines.

          To develop concise, patient-focussed, up to date, evidence-based, expert consensus recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA), which are adaptable and designed to assist physicians and allied health care professionals in general and specialist practise throughout the world. Sixteen experts from four medical disciplines (primary care, rheumatology, orthopaedics and evidence-based medicine), two continents and six countries (USA, UK, France, Netherlands, Sweden and Canada) formed the guidelines development team. A systematic review of existing guidelines for the management of hip and knee OA published between 1945 and January 2006 was undertaken using the validated appraisal of guidelines research and evaluation (AGREE) instrument. A core set of management modalities was generated based on the agreement between guidelines. Evidence before 2002 was based on a systematic review conducted by European League Against Rheumatism and evidence after 2002 was updated using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, the Cochrane Library and HTA reports. The quality of evidence was evaluated, and where possible, effect size (ES), number needed to treat, relative risk or odds ratio and cost per quality-adjusted life years gained were estimated. Consensus recommendations were produced following a Delphi exercise and the strength of recommendation (SOR) for propositions relating to each modality was determined using a visual analogue scale. Twenty-three treatment guidelines for the management of hip and knee OA were identified from the literature search, including six opinion-based, five evidence-based and 12 based on both expert opinion and research evidence. Twenty out of 51 treatment modalities addressed by these guidelines were universally recommended. ES for pain relief varied from treatment to treatment. Overall there was no statistically significant difference between non-pharmacological therapies [0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16, 0.34] and pharmacological therapies (ES=0.39, 95% CI 0.31, 0.47). Following feedback from Osteoarthritis Research International members on the draft guidelines and six Delphi rounds consensus was reached on 25 carefully worded recommendations. Optimal management of patients with OA hip or knee requires a combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities of therapy. Recommendations cover the use of 12 non-pharmacological modalities: education and self-management, regular telephone contact, referral to a physical therapist, aerobic, muscle strengthening and water-based exercises, weight reduction, walking aids, knee braces, footwear and insoles, thermal modalities, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and acupuncture. Eight recommendations cover pharmacological modalities of treatment including acetaminophen, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) non-selective and selective oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), topical NSAIDs and capsaicin, intra-articular injections of corticosteroids and hyaluronates, glucosamine and/or chondroitin sulphate for symptom relief; glucosamine sulphate, chondroitin sulphate and diacerein for possible structure-modifying effects and the use of opioid analgesics for the treatment of refractory pain. There are recommendations covering five surgical modalities: total joint replacements, unicompartmental knee replacement, osteotomy and joint preserving surgical procedures; joint lavage and arthroscopic debridement in knee OA, and joint fusion as a salvage procedure when joint replacement had failed. Strengths of recommendation and 95% CIs are provided. Twenty-five carefully worded recommendations have been generated based on a critical appraisal of existing guidelines, a systematic review of research evidence and the consensus opinions of an international, multidisciplinary group of experts. The recommendations may be adapted for use in different countries or regions according to the availability of treatment modalities and SOR for each modality of therapy. These recommendations will be revised regularly following systematic review of new research evidence as this becomes available.
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            Clinical guidelines for the use of chronic opioid therapy in chronic noncancer pain.

            Use of chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain has increased substantially. The American Pain Society and the American Academy of Pain Medicine commissioned a systematic review of the evidence on chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain and convened a multidisciplinary expert panel to review the evidence and formulate recommendations. Although evidence is limited, the expert panel concluded that chronic opioid therapy can be an effective therapy for carefully selected and monitored patients with chronic noncancer pain. However, opioids are also associated with potentially serious harms, including opioid-related adverse effects and outcomes related to the abuse potential of opioids. The recommendations presented in this document provide guidance on patient selection and risk stratification; informed consent and opioid management plans; initiation and titration of chronic opioid therapy; use of methadone; monitoring of patients on chronic opioid therapy; dose escalations, high-dose opioid therapy, opioid rotation, and indications for discontinuation of therapy; prevention and management of opioid-related adverse effects; driving and work safety; identifying a medical home and when to obtain consultation; management of breakthrough pain; chronic opioid therapy in pregnancy; and opioid-related policies. Safe and effective chronic opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain requires clinical skills and knowledge in both the principles of opioid prescribing and on the assessment and management of risks associated with opioid abuse, addiction, and diversion. Although evidence is limited in many areas related to use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain, this guideline provides recommendations developed by a multidisciplinary expert panel after a systematic review of the evidence.
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              Antagonism of nerve growth factor-TrkA signaling and the relief of pain.

              Nerve growth factor (NGF) was originally discovered as a neurotrophic factor essential for the survival of sensory and sympathetic neurons during development. However, in the adult NGF has been found to play an important role in nociceptor sensitization after tissue injury. The authors outline mechanisms by which NGF activation of its cognate receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase A receptor, regulates a host of ion channels, receptors, and signaling molecules to enhance acute and chronic pain. The authors also document that peripherally restricted antagonism of NGF-tropomyosin-related kinase A receptor signaling is effective for controlling human pain while appearing to maintain normal nociceptor function. Understanding whether there are any unexpected adverse events and how humans may change their behavior and use of the injured/degenerating tissue after significant pain relief without sedation will be required to fully appreciate the patient populations that may benefit from these therapies targeting NGF.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2019
                19 March 2019
                : 12
                : 975-995
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA, leslie.tive@ 123456pfizer.com
                [2 ]Illinois Bone and Joint Institute, Glenview, IL, USA
                [3 ]Stamford Therapeutics Consortium, Stamford, CT, USA
                [4 ]Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA
                [5 ]Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Leslie Tive, Pfizer Inc, 235 East 42nd St, New York, NY 10017, USA, Tel +1 212 733 5616, Email leslie.tive@ 123456pfizer.com
                Article
                jpr-12-975
                10.2147/JPR.S191297
                6430070
                © 2019 Tive et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                nerve growth factor, tanezumab, osteoarthritis, safety, efficacy

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