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      IGF1/IGF1R and microRNA let-7e down-regulate each other and modulate proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer cells

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          Most cited references 23

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          Phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) is an excellent predictor of poor clinical outcome in prostate cancer.

          We previously showed, by immunohistochemistry with phospho-specific antibodies, increased phosphorylation (activation) of Akt (Ser(473)) [phosphorylated Akt (pAkt)] in high-Gleason grade prostate cancer (Malik SN, et al., Clin Cancer Res 2002;8:1168-71). Elevation of pAkt was accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 (Thr(202)/Tyr(204)) [phosphorylated ERK (pERK)], indicative of inactivation. In this report, we determined whether increased pAkt and decreased pERK predicted clinical outcome. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure (detectable and rising PSA) versus PSA non-failure (undetectable PSA 5 years after prostatectomy) was used as a surrogate for clinical outcome. Prostate tumors from cases of PSA failure versus non-failure were stained for pAkt and pERK. A significant increase in mean pAkt staining (P < 0.001) in the PSA failures versus non-failures was seen based on the Wilcoxon signed ranks test [222.18 +/- 33.9 (n = 37) versus 108.79 +/- 104.57 (n = 16)]. Using the best-fitting multiple logistic regression equation, a 100-point increase in pAkt staining resulted in a 160% increase in the odds of being a PSA failure. There was decreased staining for pERK in PSA failures versus non-failures: a 100-point decrease resulted in an 80% increase in the odds of being a PSA failure. Each of these effects assumed the other biomarker was held constant. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for these two biomarkers predicting PSA failure was 0.84, indicating excellent discrimination between PSA failure and non-failure cases. These data indicate that increased pAkt, alone or together with decreased pERK, is an important predictor of probability of PSA failure. However, pERK alone was not a significant predictor of PSA failure.
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            The let-7 microRNA represses cell proliferation pathways in human cells.

            MicroRNAs play important roles in animal development, cell differentiation, and metabolism and have been implicated in human cancer. The let-7 microRNA controls the timing of cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation in Caenorhabditis elegans and is poorly expressed or deleted in human lung tumors. Here, we show that let-7 is highly expressed in normal lung tissue, and that inhibiting let-7 function leads to increased cell division in A549 lung cancer cells. Overexpression of let-7 in cancer cell lines alters cell cycle progression and reduces cell division, providing evidence that let-7 functions as a tumor suppressor in lung cells. let-7 was previously shown to regulate the expression of the RAS lung cancer oncogenes, and our work now shows that multiple genes involved in cell cycle and cell division functions are also directly or indirectly repressed by let-7. This work reveals the let-7 microRNA to be a master regulator of cell proliferation pathways.
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              Insulin-like growth factors and cancer.

              Interest in insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their effect on carcinogenesis has increased recently because high serum concentrations of IGF1 are associated with an increased risk of breast, prostate, colorectal, and lung cancers. Physiologically, IGF1 is the major mediator of the effects of the growth hormone; it thus has a strong influence on cell proliferation and differentiation and is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis. The action of IGF1 is predominantly mediated through the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R). IGF1R is involved in several oncogenic transformation processes. The availability of unbound IGF1 for interaction with IGF1R is modulated by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP1-6). IGFBPs, especially IGFBP3, have independent effects on cell growth, for example, IGFBP3 has proapoptotic activities both dependent on and independent of p53.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell Cycle
                Cell Cycle
                Informa UK Limited
                1538-4101
                1551-4005
                May 19 2018
                July 18 2018
                May 19 2018
                : 17
                : 10
                : 1212-1219
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Colorectal Surgery, Shaoxing People’s Hospital, Shaoxing, China
                [2 ] Digestive Endoscopy Center, Shaoxing People’s Hospital, Shaoxing, China
                Article
                10.1080/15384101.2018.1469873
                © 2018

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