The purpose of this study was to identify academic differences between male and female candidates applying to our obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) residency. We reviewed the Electronic Residency Application Service applications of candidates applying to our residency program from 2005 to 2009. Academic qualifications of male and female candidates were compared using the Fisher exact and Student t tests. Of 2263 applicants, 1710 (75.6%) were women. Compared with male candidates, female candidates in the United States were more likely to have earned honors in OBGYN (51.3% vs 41.2%, p = 0.02) and internal medicine clerkships (27.6% vs 19.1%, p = 0.03). There was a nonsignificant trend toward more female membership in the Alpha Omega Alpha. There were no differences in United States Medical Licensing Exam scores based on gender. Although no difference in United States Medical Licensing Exam scores were observed, female applicants performed better in select clerkships during medical school than their male counterparts. This difference in clerkship grades may contribute to the low proportion of male residents in OBGYN, although the overall low proportion of male applicants is likely an important factor as well. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.