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      Effect of pitavastatin on urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein levels in patients with early diabetic nephropathy.

      Diabetes Care

      drug therapy, Adult, Albuminuria, physiopathology, Biological Markers, urine, Case-Control Studies, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, complications, Diabetic Nephropathies, prevention & control, Disease Progression, Enzyme Inhibitors, therapeutic use, Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Quinolines, Regression Analysis, Time Factors

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          Abstract

          Liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (l-FABP) is expressed in renal proximal tubules and is reported to be a useful marker for progression of chronic glomerulonephritis. The aim of this study was to determine whether urinary l-FABP levels are altered at various stages of diabetic nephropathy and whether pitavastatin affects urinary l-FABP levels in early diabetic nephropathy. Fifty-eight patients with type 2 diabetes (34 men and 24 women, median age 52 years) and 20 healthy, age-matched subjects (group E) were recruited for the study. The diabetic patients included 12 patients without nephropathy (group A), 20 patients with microalbuminuria (group B), 14 patients with macroalbuminuria and normal renal function (group C), and 12 patients with chronic renal failure but not undergoing hemodialysis (blood creatinine >1.2 mg/dl; mean 2.5 mg/dl, group D). Twenty group B patients were randomly assigned to receive 1 mg/day pitavastatin (10 patients, group B1) or placebo (10 patients, group B2). Treatment was continued for 12 months. Urinary l-FABP levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and serum free fatty acids (FFAs) were also measured in group B. Urinary l-FABP levels in groups A-D were 6.2 +/- 4.6 microg/g creatinine, 19.6 +/- 13.5 microg/g creatinine, 26.8 +/- 20.4 microg/g creatinine, and 52.4 +/- 46.8 microg/g creatinine, respectively. Urinary l-FABP levels in groups B-D were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects (group E, 5.8 +/- 4.0 microg/g creatinine) (group B, P < 0.05; group C, P < 0.01; group D, P < 0.01). In group B1, urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and urinary l-FABP levels were decreased after pitavastatin treatment (UAE before, 110 +/- 74 microg/min; 6 months, 88 +/- 60 microg/min, P < 0.05; 12 months, 58 +/- 32 microg/min, P < 0.01; l-FABP before, 18.6 +/- 12.5 microg/g creatinine; 6 months, 12.2 +/- 8.8 microg/g creatinine, P < 0.05; 12 months, 8.8 +/- 6.4 microg/g creatinine, P < 0.01). In group B2, UAE and l-FABP levels showed little change during the experimental period. In group B1, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was decreased 12 months after pitavastatin treatment (before 32.5 +/- 19.5 ng/mg creatinine, after 18.8 +/- 14.5 ng/mg creatinine, P < 0.01), but in group B2, these showed little difference during the experimental period. In both groups B1 and B2, serum FFAs showed little difference during the experimental period. Urinary l-FABP levels appear to be associated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy, and pitavastatin may be effective in ameliorating tubulointerstitial damage in early diabetic nephropathy.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Effect of lipid reduction on the progression of renal disease: a meta-analysis.

          It has been proposed that hyperlipidemia contributes to the progression of renal disease. A large trial has not been performed; however, a number of small, controlled trials have been reported. We examined the effects of antilipemic agents on glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria or albuminuria in patients with renal disease. We used Medline, abstracts from scientific meetings, and bibliographies from recent reviews and scientific reports to locate pertinent studies. Thirteen prospective controlled trials examining the effects of antilipemic agents on renal function, proteinuria, or albuminuria were included. Studies were published as full reports or abstracts and were at least three months in duration. For five of the studies, individual patient data were obtained. Other summary data were independently extracted from the published reports by two investigators and included study quality, subject characteristics, cause of renal disease, change in serum cholesterol, blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and albuminuria. There was a lower rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate with treatment compared with controls (treated controls, 0.156 mL/min/month; 95% CI, 0.026 to 0. 285 mL/min/month, P = 0.008). The study results were statistically homogeneous, and in a regression analysis, the effect of treatment on glomerular filtration rate did not correlate with study quality, the percentage change in cholesterol, the type of lipid-lowering agent, or the cause of renal disease. However, longer follow-up correlated with the amount of improvement in glomerular filtration rate from treatment (P = 0.007). There was a tendency for a favorable effect of treatment on protein or albumin excretion [Ln (treatment) - Ln (control) = -0.248, 95% CI, -0.562 to 0.064, P = 0. 077]. However, these results were statistically heterogeneous between studies (P < 0.001). No obvious explanation for this heterogeneity was apparent in a regression analysis examining potential reasons for differences in study results. Lipid reduction may preserve glomerular filtration rate and may decrease proteinuria in patients with renal disease.
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            Activation of tubular epithelial cells in diabetic nephropathy.

            Previous studies have shown that renal function in type 2 diabetes correlates better with tubular changes than with glomerular pathology. Since advanced glycation end products (AGEs; AGE-albumin) and in particular carboxymethyllysine (CML) are known to play a central role in diabetic nephropathy, we studied the activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in tubular epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro by AGE-albumin and CML. Urine samples from healthy control subjects (n = 50) and type 2 diabetic patients (n = 100) were collected and tested for excretion of CML and the presence of proximal tubular epithelial cells (pTECs). CML excretion was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in healthy control subjects (P < 0.0001) and correlated with the degree of albuminuria (r = 0.7, P < 0.0001), while there was no correlation between CML excretion and HbA(1c) (r = 0.03, P = 0.76). Urine sediments from 20 of 100 patients contained pTECs, evidenced by cytokeratin 18 positivity, while healthy control subjects (n = 50) showed none (P < 0.0001). Activated NF-kappaB could be detected in the nuclear region of excreted pTECs in 8 of 20 patients with pTECs in the urine sediment (40%). Five of eight NF-kappaBp65 antigen-positive cells stained positive for interleukin-6 (IL-6) antigen (62%), while only one of the NF-kappaB-negative cells showed IL-6 positivity. pTECs in the urine sediment correlated positively with albuminuria (r = 0.57, P < 0.0001) and CML excretion (r = 0.55, P < 0.0001). Immunohistochemistry in diabetic rat kidneys and a human diabetic kidney confirmed strong expression of NF-kappaB in tubular cells. To further prove an AGE/CML-induced NF-kappaB activation in pTECs, NF-kappaB activation was studied in cultured human pTECs by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and Western blot. Stimulation of NF-kappaB binding activity was dose dependent and was one-half maximal at 250 nmol/l AGE-albumin or CML and time dependent at a maximum of activation after 4 days. Functional relevance of the observed NF-kappaB activation was demonstrated in pTECs transfected with a NF-kappaB-driven luciferase reporter plasmid and was associated with an increased release of IL-6 into the supernatant. The AGE- and CML-dependent activation of NF-kappaBp65 and NF-kappaB-dependent IL-6 expression could be inhibited using the soluble form of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) (soluble RAGE [sRAGE]), RAGE-specific antibody, or the antioxidant thioctic acid. In addition transcriptional activity and IL-6 release from transfected cells could be inhibited by overexpression of the NF-kappaB-specific inhibitor kappaBalpha. The findings that excreted pTECs demonstrate activated NF-kappaB and IL-6 antigen and that AGE-albumin and CML lead to a perpetuated activation of NF-kappaB in vitro infer that a perpetuated increase in proinflammtory gene products, such as IL-6, plays a role in damaging the renal tubule.
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              Locations of the three primary binding sites for long-chain fatty acids on bovine serum albumin.

              Binding of 13C-enriched oleic acid to bovine serum albumin and to three large proteolytic fragments of albumin--two complementary fragments corresponding to the two halves of albumin and one fragment corresponding to the carboxyl-terminal domain--yielded unique patterns of NMR resonances (chemical shifts and relative intensities) that were used to identify the locations of binding of the first 5 mol of oleic acid to the multidomain albumin molecule. The first 3 mol of oleic acid added to intact albumin generated three distinct NMR resonances as a result of simultaneous binding of oleic acid to three heterogeneous sites (primary sites). Two of these resonances were seen upon addition of 1 or 2 mol of oleic acid to fragments representing either the carboxyl-terminal half (residues 307-582) or the carboxyl-terminal domain (residues 377-582); the third resonance was seen upon addition of 1 mol of oleic acid to the fragment representing the amino-terminal half (residues 1-306). The resonance patterns for the fourth and fifth moles of oleic acid added to albumin (secondary sites) could not be duplicated by addition of more oleic acid to individual fragments. These resonance patterns were generated, however, when the two complementary fragments were mixed in equimolar proportions to form an albumin-like complex with a reconstituted middle domain. Thus, two primary fatty acid binding sites are assigned to the carboxyl-terminal domain, one primary site is assigned to the amino-terminal half, and the secondary sites are assigned to the middle domain. This distribution suggests albumin to be a less symmetrical binding molecule than theoretical models predict. This work also demonstrates the power of NMR for the study of microenvironments of individual fatty acid binding sites in specific domains.
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                16249547

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