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      Next generation sequencing with copy number variant detection expands the phenotypic spectrum of HSD17B4-deficiency

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          Abstract

          Background

          D-bifunctional protein deficiency, caused by recessive mutations in HSD17B4, is a severe, infantile-onset disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. Few affected patients survive past two years of age. Compound heterozygous mutations in HSD17B4 have also been reported in two sisters diagnosed with Perrault syndrome (MIM # 233400), who presented in adolescence with ovarian dysgenesis, hearing loss, and ataxia.

          Case presentation

          An adult male presented with cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, hearing loss, and azoospermia. The clinical presentation, in combination with biochemical findings in serum, urine, and muscle biopsy, suggested a mitochondrial disorder. Commercial genetic testing of 18 ataxia and mitochondrial disease genes was negative. Targeted exome sequencing followed by analysis of single nucleotide variants and small insertions/deletions failed to reveal a genetic basis of disease. Application of a computational algorithm to infer copy number variants (CNVs) from exome data revealed a heterozygous 12 kb deletion of exons 10–13 of HSD17B4 that was compounded with a rare missense variant (p.A196V) at a highly conserved residue. Retrospective review of patient records revealed mildly elevated ratios of pristanic:phytanic acid and arachidonic:docosahexaenoic acid, consistent with dysfunctional peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation.

          Conclusion

          Our case expands the phenotypic spectrum of HSD17B4-deficiency, representing the first male case reported with infertility. Furthermore, it points to crosstalk between mitochondria and peroxisomes in HSD17B4-deficiency and Perrault syndrome.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Copy number variation detection and genotyping from exome sequence data.

          While exome sequencing is readily amenable to single-nucleotide variant discovery, the sparse and nonuniform nature of the exome capture reaction has hindered exome-based detection and characterization of genic copy number variation. We developed a novel method using singular value decomposition (SVD) normalization to discover rare genic copy number variants (CNVs) as well as genotype copy number polymorphic (CNP) loci with high sensitivity and specificity from exome sequencing data. We estimate the precision of our algorithm using 122 trios (366 exomes) and show that this method can be used to reliably predict (94% overall precision) both de novo and inherited rare CNVs involving three or more consecutive exons. We demonstrate that exome-based genotyping of CNPs strongly correlates with whole-genome data (median r(2) = 0.91), especially for loci with fewer than eight copies, and can estimate the absolute copy number of multi-allelic genes with high accuracy (78% call level). The resulting user-friendly computational pipeline, CoNIFER (copy number inference from exome reads), can reliably be used to discover disruptive genic CNVs missed by standard approaches and should have broad application in human genetic studies of disease.
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            Mutations in the DBP-deficiency protein HSD17B4 cause ovarian dysgenesis, hearing loss, and ataxia of Perrault Syndrome.

            Perrault syndrome is a recessive disorder characterized by ovarian dysgenesis in females, sensorineural deafness in both males and females, and in some patients, neurological manifestations. No genes for Perrault syndrome have heretofore been identified. A small family of mixed European ancestry includes two sisters with well-characterized Perrault syndrome. Whole-exome sequencing of genomic DNA from one of these sisters revealed exactly one gene with two rare functional variants: HSD17B4, which encodes 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (HSD17B4), also known as D-bifunctional protein (DBP). HSD17B4/DBP is a multifunctional peroxisomal enzyme involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation and steroid metabolism. Both sisters are compound heterozygotes for HSD17B4 c.650A>G (p.Y217C) (maternal allele) and HSB17B4 c.1704T>A (p.Y568X) (paternal allele). The missense mutation is predicted by structural analysis to destabilize the HSD17B4 dehydrogenase domain. The nonsense mutation leads to very low levels of HSD17B4 transcript. Expression of mutant HSD17B4 protein in a compound heterozygote was severely reduced. Mutations in HSD17B4 are known to cause DBP deficiency, an autosomal-recessive disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation that is generally fatal within the first two years of life. No females with DBP deficiency surviving past puberty have been reported, and ovarian dysgenesis has not previously been associated with this illness. Six other families with Perrault syndrome have wild-type sequences of HSD17B4. These results indicate that Perrault syndrome and DBP deficiency overlap clinically; that Perrault syndrome is genetically heterogeneous; that DBP deficiency may be underdiagnosed; and that whole-exome sequencing can reveal critical genes in small, nonconsanguineous families.
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              Targeted exome sequencing of suspected mitochondrial disorders.

              To evaluate the utility of targeted exome sequencing for the molecular diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders, which exhibit marked phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. We considered a diverse set of 102 patients with suspected mitochondrial disorders based on clinical, biochemical, and/or molecular findings, and whose disease ranged from mild to severe, with varying age at onset. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and the exons of 1,598 nuclear-encoded genes implicated in mitochondrial biology, mitochondrial disease, or monogenic disorders with phenotypic overlap. We prioritized variants likely to underlie disease and established molecular diagnoses in accordance with current clinical genetic guidelines. Targeted exome sequencing yielded molecular diagnoses in established disease loci in 22% of cases, including 17 of 18 (94%) with prior molecular diagnoses and 5 of 84 (6%) without. The 5 new diagnoses implicated 2 genes associated with canonical mitochondrial disorders (NDUFV1, POLG2), and 3 genes known to underlie other neurologic disorders (DPYD, KARS, WFS1), underscoring the phenotypic and biochemical overlap with other inborn errors. We prioritized variants in an additional 26 patients, including recessive, X-linked, and mtDNA variants that were enriched 2-fold over background and await further support of pathogenicity. In one case, we modeled patient mutations in yeast to provide evidence that recessive mutations in ATP5A1 can underlie combined respiratory chain deficiency. The results demonstrate that targeted exome sequencing is an effective alternative to the sequential testing of mtDNA and individual nuclear genes as part of the investigation of mitochondrial disease. Our study underscores the ongoing challenge of variant interpretation in the clinical setting.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                BMC Med Genet
                BMC Med. Genet
                BMC Medical Genetics
                BioMed Central
                1471-2350
                2014
                6 March 2014
                : 15
                : 30
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
                [2 ]Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
                [3 ]Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
                [4 ]Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02141, USA
                [5 ]Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
                [6 ]Ataxia Unit, Cognitive Behavioral Neurology Unit, Laboratory for Neuroanatomy and Cerebellar Neurobiology, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
                [7 ]Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
                Article
                1471-2350-15-30
                10.1186/1471-2350-15-30
                4015298
                24602372
                Copyright © 2014 Lieber et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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