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      Emirates Diabetes Society Consensus Guidelines for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus – 2020

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          Abstract

          Rapid urbanisation and socioeconomic development in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have led to the widespread adoption of a sedentary lifestyle and Westernised diet in the local population and consequently a high prevalence of obesity and diabetes. In 2019, International Diabetes Federation statistics reported a diabetes prevalence rate of 16.3% for the adult population in the UAE. In view of the wealth of recent literature on diabetes care and new pharmacotherapeutics, the Emirates Diabetes Society convened a panel of experts to update existing local guidelines with international management recommendations. The goal is to improve the standard of care for people with diabetes through increased awareness of these management practices among healthcare providers licensed by national health authorities. These consensus guidelines address the screening, diagnosis and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults including individuals at risk of developing the disease.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin.

          Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 8 percent of adults in the United States. Some risk factors--elevated plasma glucose concentrations in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle--are potentially reversible. We hypothesized that modifying these factors with a lifestyle-intervention program or the administration of metformin would prevent or delay the development of diabetes. We randomly assigned 3234 nondiabetic persons with elevated fasting and post-load plasma glucose concentrations to placebo, metformin (850 mg twice daily), or a lifestyle-modification program with the goals of at least a 7 percent weight loss and at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week. The mean age of the participants was 51 years, and the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 34.0; 68 percent were women, and 45 percent were members of minority groups. The average follow-up was 2.8 years. The incidence of diabetes was 11.0, 7.8, and 4.8 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo, metformin, and lifestyle groups, respectively. The lifestyle intervention reduced the incidence by 58 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 48 to 66 percent) and metformin by 31 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 17 to 43 percent), as compared with placebo; the lifestyle intervention was significantly more effective than metformin. To prevent one case of diabetes during a period of three years, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle-intervention program, and 13.9 would have to receive metformin. Lifestyle changes and treatment with metformin both reduced the incidence of diabetes in persons at high risk. The lifestyle intervention was more effective than metformin.
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            Physical activity advice only or structured exercise training and association with HbA1c levels in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

            Regular exercise improves glucose control in diabetes, but the association of different exercise training interventions on glucose control is unclear. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) assessing associations of structured exercise training regimens (aerobic, resistance, or both) and physical activity advice with or without dietary cointervention on change in hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) in type 2 diabetes patients. MEDLINE, Cochrane-CENTRAL, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, LILACS, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from January 1980 through February 2011. RCTs of at least 12 weeks' duration that evaluated the ability of structured exercise training or physical activity advice to lower HbA(1c) levels as compared with a control group in patients with type 2 diabetes. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed quality of the included studies. Of 4191 articles retrieved, 47 RCTs (8538 patients) were included. Pooled mean differences in HbA(1c) levels between intervention and control groups were calculated using a random-effects model. Overall, structured exercise training (23 studies) was associated with a decline in HbA(1c) level (-0.67%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.84% to -0.49%; I(2), 91.3%) compared with control participants. In addition, structured aerobic exercise (-0.73%; 95% CI, -1.06% to -0.40%; I(2), 92.8%), structured resistance training (-0.57%; 95% CI, -1.14% to -0.01%; I(2), 92.5%), and both combined (-0.51%; 95% CI, -0.79% to -0.23%; I(2), 67.5%) were each associated with declines in HbA(1C) levels compared with control participants. Structured exercise durations of more than 150 minutes per week were associated with HbA(1c) reductions of 0.89%, while structured exercise durations of 150 minutes or less per week were associated with HbA(1C) reductions of 0.36%. Overall, interventions of physical activity advice (24 studies) were associated with lower HbA(1c) levels (-0.43%; 95% CI, -0.59% to -0.28%; I(2), 62.9%) compared with control participants. Combined physical activity advice and dietary advice was associated with decreased HbA(1c) (-0.58%; 95% CI, -0.74% to -0.43%; I(2), 57.5%) as compared with control participants. Physical activity advice alone was not associated with HbA(1c) changes. Structured exercise training that consists of aerobic exercise, resistance training, or both combined is associated with HbA(1c) reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes. Structured exercise training of more than 150 minutes per week is associated with greater HbA(1c) declines than that of 150 minutes or less per week. Physical activity advice is associated with lower HbA(1c), but only when combined with dietary advice.
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              2. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2020

              (2019)
              The American Diabetes Association (ADA) "Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes" includes the ADA's current clinical practice recommendations and is intended to provide the components of diabetes care, general treatment goals and guidelines, and tools to evaluate quality of care. Members of the ADA Professional Practice Committee (https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-SPPC), a multidisciplinary expert committee, are responsible for updating the Standards of Care annually, or more frequently as warranted. For a detailed description of ADA standards, statements, and reports, as well as the evidence-grading system for ADA's clinical practice recommendations, please refer to the Standards of Care Introduction (https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-SINT). Readers who wish to comment on the Standards of Care are invited to do so at professional.diabetes.org/SOC.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                DDE
                10.1159/issn.2673-1738
                International Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism
                S. Karger AG
                2673-1797
                2673-1738
                2020
                December 2020
                19 February 2020
                : 26
                : 1
                : 1-20
                Affiliations
                aEndocrine Department, Dubai Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                bDepartment of Medicine, Dubai Medical College, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                cUniversity Hospital Sharjah, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
                dEndocrinology Division, Tawam Hospital, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
                eCollege of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
                fMarina Health Promotion Center, Burjeel, United Arab Emirates
                gPublic Health Center, Department of Health Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
                hHealthcare Licensing and Medical Education, Department of Health Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
                iAlborj Medical Centre, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                jMediclinic, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
                kNCD-Section, Ministry of Health and Prevention (MOHAP), Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                lDHIC, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                mDubai Diabetes Center, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                nRashid Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                oPostgraduate Diabetes Education, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
                pDepartment of Endocrinology, Medcare Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                qMohammed Bin Rashid University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                rAga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
                sMediclinic, City Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                tHealthplus Diabetes and Endocrinology Center, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
                uCleveland Clinic, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
                vImperial College London Diabetes Centre, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
                wImperial College, London University, London, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                *Fatheya Alawadi, Endocrine Department, Dubai Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, DHA, Alkhaleej Road, PO Box 7272, Dubai (UAE), ffalawadi@dha.gov.ae
                Article
                506508 Dubai Diabetes Endocrinol J 2020;26:1–20
                10.1159/000506508
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 3, Pages: 20
                Categories
                Guidelines

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