Peritoneal dialysis (PD) was the first dialytic therapy used to achieve euvolemia in individuals with refractory congestive heart failure. PD remains a viable therapy for the short-term management of refractory congestive heart failure, and fluid removal rates comparable to those obtained with the continuous extracorporeal therapies can be achieved. However, with advances in extracorporeal therapies, the role of PD in these situations is limited to those individuals in whom vascular access cannot be obtained or if extracorporeal therapies are not available. On the other hand, PD is the ultrafiltration therapy of choice for the long-term ambulatory management of individuals with refractory congestive heart failure, either as a palliative therapy or as a bridge to definitive surgery or transplantation. A reduction in hospitalization rates and an improvement in functional capacity can be expected under such circumstances; however, survival is unlikely to be affected.