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      Role of Cytochrome P450 2B1 in Puromycin Aminonucleoside-Induced Cytotoxicity to Glomerular Epithelial Cells

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          Puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced glomerular injury in rats mimics minimal-change nephrotic syndrome (NS) in humans. We have demonstrated an important role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) as a significant source of catalytic iron in this model of NS. The current study was designed to identify CYP isozyme(s) present in the rat glomerular epithelial cells (GEC) and to explore the role of the specific CYP isozyme in PAN-induced cytotoxicity. CYP2B1 was identified in GEC by immunocytochemistry and Western blot. Treatment of GEC with PAN resulted in a marked generation of hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) and reduction of CYP2B1 content associated with significant increase in catalytic iron and hydroxyl radical formation. Preincubating GEC with CYP2B1 inhibitors (piperine and cimetidine) and H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> scavenger (pyruvate) significantly reduced H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2 </sub>generation, preserved CYP2B1 content, prevented the increase in catalytic iron and hydroxyl radical formation including PAN-induced cytotoxicity. We also observed the induction of heme oxygenase (HO-1) in PAN-treated GEC, and this up-regulation was reduced by pretreatment of the CYP inhibitors and pyruvate. Our data thus indicate an important role of CYP2B1 in PAN-induced cytotoxicity by serving as a site of reactive oxygen metabolite generation and a significant source of catalytic iron.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Reduced stress defense in heme oxygenase 1-deficient cells

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            A microplate assay for the detection of oxidative products using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin-diacetate.

            A fluorometric microplate assay was established for the detection of respiratory burst activity in phagocytic cells by assessing oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin-diacetate (DCFH-DA). This method is based on flow cytometric studies by Bass et al. (J. Immunol. 130 (1983) p. 1910) describing intracellular detection of DCFH oxidation due to the presence of hydrogen peroxides. In the present study we have adapted the assay for use in microtiter plates to determine the amount of extracellular reactive oxidative products. DCFH-DA, granulocytes and stimuli (phorbol myristate acetate, n-formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine, concanavalin A) were added to microtiter plates and after incubation at 37 degrees C, the development of fluorescence intensity was read in a fluorescence concentration analyzer (FCA, Baxter). Calibration of fluorescence units recorded by the FCA was achieved by comparison with defined amounts of fluorescent DCF. The change in measured fluorescence was linear with cell density over the range of 2 x 10(5)-1 x 10(6) cells/well. Cumulative DCF generation in individual wells could be recorded non-destructively at frequent intervals for time course measurements. Results from FCA measurements correlated perfectly with the FACS analysis of the same samples (r = 0.99). In conclusion, this assay can be useful for screening monoclonal antibodies recognizing cell surface structures possibly involved in signal transduction as well as for testing phagocytes for their capacity to release reactive oxidative intermediates.
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              In vitro and in vivo evidence suggesting a role for iron in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

              Cisplatin is a widely used antineoplastic agent that has nephrotoxicity as a major side effect. The underlying mechanism of this nephrotoxicity is still not well known. Iron has been implicated to play an important role in several models of tissue injury, presumably through the generation of hydroxyl radicals via the Haber-Weiss reaction or other highly toxic free radicals. In the present study we examined the catalytic iron content and the effect of iron chelators in an in vitro model of cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in LLC-PK1 cells (renal tubular epithelial cells) and in an in vivo model of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in rats. Exposure of LLC-PK1 cells to cisplatin resulted in a significant increase in bleomycin-detectable iron (iron capable of catalyzing free radical reactions) released into the medium. Concurrent incubation of LLC-PK1 cells with iron chelators including deferoxamine and 1,10-phenanthroline significantly attenuated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity as measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Bleomycin-detectable iron content was also markedly increased in the kidney of rats treated with cisplatin. Similarly, administration of deferoxamine in rats provided marked functional (as measured by blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) and histological protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. In a separate study, we examined the role of hydroxyl radical in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Incubation of LLC-PK1 cells with cisplatin caused an increase in hydroxyl radical formation. Hydroxyl radical scavengers, dimethyl sulfoxide, mannitol and benzoic acid, significantly reduced cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and, treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide or dimethylthiourea provided significant protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. Taken together, our data strongly support a critical role for iron in mediating tissue injury via hydroxyl radical (or a similar oxidant) in this model of nephrotoxicity.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                May 2003
                17 November 2004
                : 94
                : 1
                : e17-e24
                Departments of aPediatrics and bPathology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Miss., USA
                70815 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2003;94:e17–e24
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 11, References: 46, Pages: 1
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/70815
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