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      The Efficacy of Hourly Prophylactic Steroids in Diffuse Lamellar Keratitis Epidemic

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          Abstract

          Purpose: To investigate the inciting agent, clinical features, and the efficacy of hourly steroids in the prophylaxis in a diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) epidemic. Methods: One hundred and five eyes of 58 patients that had DLK after LASIK were included in the study. To identify the cause of the epidemic, some interventions were made: irrigation solution was changed from BSS to Ringer lactate (week 5), wiping of the interface with a sponge was discontinued (week 6), the air conditioner in the LASIK room was checked (week 6), the routine postoperative topical regimen was changed from fluoromethalone and fluoroquinolones 4 times a day to hourly prednisolone acetate or dexamethasone sodium and fluoroquinolones (week 7), and the trademark of the drape used was changed (week 12). Results: There was no statistical difference in any of the attack rates associated with variables including BSS versus Ringer lactate (9.9 vs. 14%, p = 0.4), and air conditioner check with wiping versus not wiping the interface with the microsurgical sponge (14.0 vs. 18.2%, p = 0.6). There was a significant decrease in the attack rate from 18.2 to 5.3% with use of the hourly prophylactic topical steroids (p = 0.012). After introduction of a new trademark of the drape, the incidence of DLK was further reduced from 5.3 to 0.7% (p = 0.016). Conclusion: The cause in a particular DLK epidemic should be identified and eliminated adopting a scientific approach. Hourly steroid use for prophylaxis is recommended until the etiologic agent responsible has been identified.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Complications of laser in situ keratomileusis for the correction of myopia.

          To determine the incidence and severity of complications from laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for the correction of myopia by experienced and inexperienced surgeons. Prospective, observational clinical study. Fourteen surgeons and 1062 eyes of 574 myopic patients who desired surgical correction of myopia ranging from -2.00 to -22.50 diopters (D; mean, -7.57 D) and astigmatism no greater than 4.00 D participated in this study. Myopia was corrected with LASIK. Astigmatism was corrected with arcuate keratotomy at the same time as the initial procedure or subsequently. Primary outcome measures were change in best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and the incidence of complications. Eyes were followed for a mean of 9.5 months after their last surgical procedure (range, 2 weeks-21 months). Three hundred eighty-one eyes (36%) underwent 468 enhancement procedures 3 months or more after the initial treatment. There were 27 (2.1%) intraoperative and 40 (3.1%) postoperative complications. Laser ablation was not performed during the initial treatment of 17 (1.6%) eyes because of intraoperative complications. Seventy-four eyes gained 2 or more lines of BSCVA, while 50 eyes lost 2 or more lines of BSCVA. Only three eyes lost two or more lines of BSCVA to a level worse than 20/40. One eye with a flap buttonhole (BSCVA 20/50) also had an epiretinal membrane. The second eye (BSCVA 20/60) had a flap buttonhole that may have been related to a previous corneal transplant. The third eye (-22.50 D before surgery) had a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment develop, reducing BSCVA from 20/60 to 20/200. The incidence of intraoperative complications decreased from 3.1% during the first 3 months to 0.7% during the last 9 months of the study (P = 0.02). LASIK is acceptably safe for the correction of myopia. Although complications occur in approximately 5% of cases, these rarely lead to visual loss of more than two Snellen lines and postoperative acuity below 20/40. Flap buttonholes were more likely to cause loss of BSCVA than free or incomplete flaps (P = 0.02); flap buttonholes may be more likely in eyes that have undergone previous surgery. Complication rates can be reduced as the surgical team gains experience.
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            Diffuse lamellar keratitis. A new syndrome in lamellar refractive surgery.

            This study aimed to describe a syndrome that the authors call diffuse lamellar keratitis that follows laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and related lamellar corneal surgery. Noncomparative case series and record review. Thirteen eyes of 12 patients in whom infiltrates developed in the interface after lamellar refractive surgery were studied. Topical antibiotics or corticosteroids or both were administered. Corneal infiltrate appearance, focality, location, and clinical course were measured. Patients presented between 2 and 6 days after surgery with pain, photophobia, redness, or tearing. Ten cases directly followed either myopic keratomileusis or LASIK. Three cases followed enhancement surgery without the use of a microkeratome. All 13 cases had infiltrates that were diffuse, multifocal, and confined to the flap interface with no posterior or anterior extension. The overlying epithelium was intact in each case. Cultures were negative in the two cases cultured. Ten eyes were treated with antibacterial agents; two eyes had fluorometholone four times daily added to the routine postoperative antibacterial regimen, and one eye had the antibacterial agent discontinued and was treated with topical fluorometholone alone. All infiltrates resolved without sequelae. A distinct syndrome of unknown cause of noninfectious diffuse infiltrates in the lamellar interface is described. It can be distinguished from infectious infiltrates by clinical presentation and close follow-up. Patients with the syndrome should be spared the more invasive treatment of infectious keratitis.
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              Flap complications associated with lamellar refractive surgery.

              Corneal lamellar refractive surgery for myopia reduces the risk of corneal haze but adds to the risk of flap complications. We retrospectively determined the incidence of flap complications in the initial series of eyes undergoing lamellar refractive surgery by one surgeon. We assessed the incidence of flap complications overall, the trend in these complications during the surgeon's learning curve, and the impact of the complications on best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. Charts of the first 1,019 eyes that underwent myopic keratomileusis in situ or laser in situ keratomileusis were reviewed for flap complications and visual outcome. Of the 1,019 eyes, 490 eyes underwent myopic keratomileusis in situ, and 529 eyes underwent laser in situ keratomileusis. Eighty-eight (8.6%) of 1,019 eyes had flap-related complications. Six eyes had two complications. Intraoperative complications included irregular keratectomy in nine eyes (0.9%), incomplete keratectomy in three eyes (0.3%), and a free cap in 10 eyes (1.0%). The incidence of intraoperative complications was six (6.0%) in the first 100 consecutive eyes, 14 (2.3%) in the next 600 consecutive eyes (P = .04, chi-square test), and one (0.3%) in the last 300 eyes (P = .03, chi-square test). Postoperative complications included displaced flaps that required repositioning in 20 eyes (2.0%), folds in the flap that required repositioning in 11 eyes (1.1%), diffuse lamellar keratitis in 18 eyes (1.8%), infectious keratitis in one eye (0.1%), and epithelial ingrowth that required removal in 22 eyes (2.2%). The incidence of flap displacement and folds in 200 eyes in which we irrigated under the flap and allowed it to settle without further manipulation averaged 8.5%, whereas the incidence in other groups of 100 consecutive eyes averaged 0.8% (P < .00001, chi-square test). The incidence of diffuse lamellar keratitis was 0.2% in eyes that had undergone myopic keratomileusis in situ and 3.2% in eyes treated by laser in situ keratomileusis (P = .0003, chi-square test). No eye lost 2 or more lines of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity because of flap complications. Flap complications after lamellar refractive surgery are relatively common but rarely lead to a permanent decrease in visual acuity. Physician experience with the microkeratome and with the handling of the corneal flap decreases the incidence of flap complications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OPH
                Ophthalmologica
                10.1159/issn.0030-3755
                Ophthalmologica
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3755
                1423-0267
                2004
                October 2004
                26 July 2010
                : 218
                : 5
                : 318-322
                Affiliations
                Dunya Eye Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
                Article
                79473 Ophthalmologica 2004;218:318–322
                10.1159/000079473
                15334012
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 16, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Paper

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