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      Prediction of outcome in acute lower-gastrointestinal haemorrhage based on an artificial neural network: internal and external validation of a predictive model.


      statistics & numerical data, Acute Disease, Triage, Risk Assessment, Reproducibility of Results, Recurrence, Prognosis, Predictive Value of Tests, methods, Outcome Assessment (Health Care), Neural Networks (Computer), Middle Aged, Male, Logistic Models, Humans, therapy, diagnosis, classification, Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage, Female

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          Models based on artificial neural networks (ANN) are useful in predicting outcome of various disorders. There is currently no useful predictive model for risk assessment in acute lower-gastrointestinal haemorrhage. We investigated whether ANN models using information available during triage could predict clinical outcome in patients with this disorder. ANN and multiple-logistic-regression (MLR) models were constructed from non-endoscopic data of patients admitted with acute lower-gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The performance of ANN in classifying patients into high-risk and low-risk groups was compared with that of another validated scoring system (BLEED), with the outcome variables recurrent bleeding, death, and therapeutic interventions for control of haemorrhage. The ANN models were trained with data from patients admitted to the primary institution during the first 12 months (n=120) and then internally validated with data from patients admitted to the same institution during the next 6 months (n=70). The ANN models were then externally validated and direct comparison made with MLR in patients admitted to an independent institution in another US state (n=142). Clinical features were similar for training and validation groups. The predictive accuracy of ANN was significantly better than that of BLEED (predictive accuracy in internal validation group for death 87% vs 21%; for recurrent bleeding 89% vs 41%; and for intervention 96% vs 46%) and similar to MLR. During external validation, ANN performed well in predicting death (97%), recurrent bleeding (93%), and need for intervention (94%), and it was superior to MLR (70%, 73%, and 70%, respectively). ANN can accurately predict the outcome for patients presenting with acute lower-gastrointestinal haemorrhage and may be generally useful for the risk stratification of these patients.

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