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      Spinal cord stimulation with implanted epidural paddle lead relieves chronic axial low back pain

      , ,

      Journal of Pain Research

      Dove Medical Press

      SCS, LBP, laminotomy, paddle electrodes

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) provides significant relief for lumbosacral radiculopathy refractory to both medical and surgical treatment, but historically only offers limited relief for axial low back pain (LBP). We aim to evaluate the response of chronic axial LBP treated with SCS using a surgically implanted epidural paddle lead.

          Materials and methods

          This is a retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients with exclusive LBP or predominant LBP associated with lower extremity (LE) pain evaluated and treated with SCS using an implanted paddle lead within the dorsal thoracic epidural space. Baseline LBP, and if present LE pain, were recorded using the visual analogue scale (VAS) at an initial evaluation. At a follow-up visit (a minimum of 12 months later), LBP and LE pain after a spinal cord stimulator implantation were again recorded using the VAS. Patients were also asked to estimate total LBP pain relief achieved.

          Results

          Patients with either exclusive (n=7) or predominant (n=2) axial LBP were treated with SCS by implantation of a paddle lead at an average spine level of T9. The baseline VAS score for LBP was 7.2; after a follow-up of 20 months, the score decreased to 2.3 ( P=0.003). The LE pain VAS score decreased from 7.5 to 0.0 ( P=0.103). Patients also reported a subjective 66.4% decrease of their LBP at follow-up. There were no surgical complications.

          Conclusions

          Axial LBP is refractory to many treatments, including SCS. SCS using a surgically implanted paddle electrode provides significant pain relief for chronic axial LPB, and is a safe treatment modality.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Prospective, multicenter study of spinal cord stimulation for relief of chronic back and extremity pain.

          This prospective, multicenter study was designed to investigate the efficacy and outcome of spinal cord stimulation using a variety of clinical and psychosocial outcome measures. Data were collected before implantation and at regular intervals after implantation. This report focuses on 70 patients who had undergone 1 year of follow-up treatment at the time of data analysis. To provide a more generalizable assessment of long-term spinal cord stimulation outcome by comparing a variety of pain and functional/quality-of-life measures before and after management. This report details results after 1 year of stimulation. The historically diverse methods, patient selection criteria, and outcome measures reported in the spinal cord stimulation literature have made interpretation and comparison of results difficult. Although short-term outcomes are generally consistent, long-term outcomes of spinal cord stimulation, as determined by prospective studies that assess multidimensional aspects of the pain complaint among a relatively homogeneous population, are not well established. Two hundred nineteen patients were entered at six centers throughout the United States. All patients underwent a trial of stimulation before implant of the permanent system. Most were psychologically screened. One hundred eighty-two patients were implanted with a permanent stimulating system. At the time of this report, complete 1-year follow-up data were available on 70 patients, 88% of whom reported pain in the back or lower extremities. Patient evaluation of pain and functional levels was completed before implantation and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after implantation. Complications, medication usage, and work status also were monitored. All pain and quality-of-life measures showed statistically significant improvement during the treatment year. These included the average pain visual analogue scale, the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire, the Sickness Impact Profile, and the Back Depression Inventory. Overall success of the therapy was defined as at least 50% pain relief and patient assessment of the procedure as fully or partially beneficial and worthwhile. Using this definition, spinal cord stimulation successfully managed pain in 55% of patients on whom 1-year follow-up is available. Complications requiring surgical intervention were reported by 17% (12 of 70) of patients. Medication usage and work status were not changed significantly. This prospective, multicenter study confirms that spinal cord stimulation can be an effective therapy for management of chronic low back and extremity pain. Significant improvements in many aspects of the pain condition were measured, and complications were minimal.
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            Failed back surgery syndrome: 5-year follow-up after spinal cord stimulator implantation.

            Spinal cord stimulation, in use for more than 20 years, has evolved into an easily implemented technique, with percutaneous methods for electrode placement. We have reviewed our experience with this technique in treating "failed back surgery syndrome," and have assessed patient and treatment characteristics as predictors of long-term outcome. A series of 50 patients with failed back surgery syndrome (averaging 3.1 previous operations), who underwent spinal cord stimulator implantation, was interviewed by impartial third parties, at mean follow-up intervals of 2.2 years and 5.0 years. Successful outcome (at least 50% sustained relief of pain and patient satisfaction with the result) was recorded in 53% of patients at 2.2 years and in 47% of patients at 5.0 years postoperatively. Ten of 40 patients who were disabled preoperatively returned to work. Improvements in activities of daily living were recorded in most patients for most activities; loss of function was rare. Most patients reduced or eliminated analgesic intake. Statistical analysis (including univariate and multivariate logistic regression) of patient characteristics as prognostic factors showed significant advantages for female patients and for those with programmable multi-contact implanted devices. These results, in patients with postsurgical lumbar arachnoid and epidural fibrosis and without surgically remediable lesions, compare favorably with the results in two separate series of patients with failed back surgery syndrome, in whom 1) surgical lesions were diagnosed and repeated operation performed; and 2) monoradicular pain syndromes were diagnosed and dorsal root ganglionectomies performed at our institution. This suggests the need for further assessment of selection criteria, critical analysis of treatment outcome, and prospective study of spinal cord stimulation and alternative approaches to failed back surgery syndrome.
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              The pathogenesis of discogenic low back pain.

               Baogan Peng,  Pan P. Li,  E Wu (2004)
              Discogenic low back pain is a common cause of disability, but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. We collected 19 specimens of lumbar intervertebral discs from 17 patients with discogenic low back pain during posterior lumbar interbody fusion, 12 from physiologically ageing discs and ten from normal control discs. We investigated the histological features and assessed the immunoreactive activity of neurofilament (NF200) and neuropeptides such as substance P (SP) and vasoactive-intestinal peptide (VIP) in the nerve fibres. The distinct histological characteristic of the painful disc was the formation of a zone of vascularised granulation tissue from the nucleus pulposus to the outer part of the annulus fibrosus along the edges of the fissures. SP-, NF- and VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibres in the painful discs were more extensive than in the control discs. Growth of nerves deep into the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus was observed mainly along the zone of granulation tissue in the painful discs. This suggests that the zone of granulation tissue with extensive innervation along the tears in the posterior part of the painful disc may be responsible for causing the pain of discography and of discogenic low back pain.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2014
                12 August 2014
                : 7
                : 465-470
                Affiliations
                Division of Neurosurgery, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Martin Weinand, PO Box 245070, 1501 N Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724-5070, USA, Tel +1 520 626 5003, Fax +1 520 626 8313, Email mweinand@ 123456surgery.arizona.edu
                Article
                jpr-7-465
                10.2147/JPR.S66414
                4136982
                © 2014 Stidd et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                paddle electrodes, laminotomy, lbp, scs

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