0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Mechanisms of Podocyte Detachment, Podocyturia, and Risk of Progression of Glomerulopathies

      *

      Kidney Diseases

      S. Karger AG

      Podocyte, Podocyturia, Proteinuria, Glomerulopathy, Chronic kidney disease

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background: Glomerulopathies are the main cause of ESRD. Primary or secondary causes of glomerular diseases comprise more than 70% of cases that end up in renal replacement therapies. Summary: The total glomerular mass that each individual contains is key to maintaining normal kidney function. Diabetes, hypertension, and any primary or secondary glomerulopathy may threaten the normal glomerular function. In fact, any glomerular insult may alter the glomerular filtration barrier, which in turn is composed by the podocyte, the glomerular basement membrane, and the capillary endothelial cell. Deposition of immune complexes, antibodies, or complement components at the subepithelial, intramembranous, or subendothelial space, and mutations in podocyte, slit diaphragm, or glomerular basement membrane proteins or enzymes are the main etiologies of glomerular alterations. Podocytes are glomerular cells that do not divide under normal circumstances. In this respect, maintenance of the absolute podocyte number per glomer­ulus is critical for normal glomerular function. As the insult progresses, podocytes start to detach from the glomerular basement membrane. When the podocyte loss is over 40% in a glomerulus, glomerulosclerosis develops, and obliteration of the glomerulus is the rule. In clinical grounds, this phenomenon is diagnosed mainly by proteinuria and a decline in glomerular filtration rate. Key messages: In this review article, the impact of podocyturia in glomerular diseases and the main mechanisms of podocyte detachment are discussed. Finally, potential targets of therapeutic approach are suggested.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 43

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Podocyte injury and its consequences.

           Michio Nagata (2016)
          Podocytes maintain the glomerular filtration barrier, and the stability of this barrier depends on their highly differentiated postmitotic phenotype, which also defines the particular vulnerability of the glomerulus. Recent podocyte biology and gene disruption studies in vivo indicate a causal relationship between abnormalities of single podocyte molecules and proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis. Podocytes live under various stresses and pathological stimuli. They adapt to maintain homeostasis, but excessive stress leads to maladaptation with complex biological changes including loss of integrity and dysregulation of cellular metabolism. Podocyte injury causes proteinuria and detachment from the glomerular basement membrane. In addition to "sick" podocytes and their detachment, our understanding of glomerular responses following podocyte loss needs to address the pathways from podocyte injury to sclerosis. Studies have found a variety of glomerular responses to podocyte dysfunction in vivo, such as disruption of podocyte-endothelial cross talk and activation of podocyte-parietal cell interactions, all of which help us to understand the complex scenario of podocyte injury and its consequences. This review focuses on the cellular aspects of podocyte dysfunction and the adaptive or maladaptive glomerular responses to podocyte injury that lead to its major consequence, glomerulosclerosis.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The podocyte's response to stress: the enigma of foot process effacement.

            Progressive loss of podocytes is the most frequent cause accounting for end-stage renal failure. Podocytes are complex, terminally differentiated cells incapable of replicating. Thus lost podocytes cannot be replaced by proliferation of neighboring undamaged cells. Moreover, podocytes occupy a unique position as epithelial cells, adhering to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) only by their processes, whereas their cell bodies float within the filtrate in Bowman's space. This exposes podocytes to the danger of being lost by detachment as viable cells from the GBM. Indeed, podocytes are continually excreted as viable cells in the urine, and the rate of excretion dramatically increases in glomerular diseases. Given this situation, it is likely that evolution has developed particular mechanisms whereby podocytes resist cell detachment. Podocytes respond to stress and injury by undergoing tremendous changes in shape. Foot process effacement is the most prominent and, yet in some ways, the most enigmatic of those changes. This review summarizes the various structural responses of podocytes to injury, focusing on foot process effacement and detachment. We raise the hypothesis that foot process effacement represents a protective response of podocytes to escape detachment from the GBM.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Urinary excretion of viable podocytes in health and renal disease.

              The loss of glomerular visceral epithelial cells (podocytes) has been associated with the development of glomerular sclerosis and loss of renal function. Viability of podocytes recovered from urine of subjects with glomerular disease and of healthy controls was investigated by propidium iodide exclusion and TUNEL staining. Podocyte loss was quantified by cytospin. The growth behavior in culture of urinary cells and their expression of specific markers were examined. The majority of urinary podocytes are viable, although apoptosis occurs in about one-half of the cells. Patients with active glomerular disease excreted up to 388 podocytes/mg creatinine, whereas healthy controls and patients with quiescent disease generally excreted <0.5 podocytes/mg creatinine. The identity of cultured cells was confirmed by their morphology, growth behavior, and expression of podocyte-specific markers. The difference in growth behavior between healthy controls and subjects with active glomerular disease suggests that in active disease viable podocytes detach from the glomerular tuft due to local environmental factors rather than defects in the podocytes per se, whereas in healthy individuals mostly senescent podocytes are shed.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                KDD
                KDD
                10.1159/issn.2296-9357
                Kidney Diseases
                S. Karger AG
                2296-9381
                2296-9357
                2020
                September 2020
                27 May 2020
                : 6
                : 5
                : 324-329
                Affiliations
                Nephrology Service, Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Británico de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                Author notes
                *Dr. Hernán Trimarchi, Nephrology Service, Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Británico de Buenos Aires, Perdriel 74, Buenos Aires 1280 (Argentina), htrimarchi@hotmail.com
                Article
                507997 Kidney Dis 2020;6:324–329
                10.1159/000507997
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 6
                Categories
                Review Article

                Comments

                Comment on this article