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      Genistein, a Phytoestrogen, Effectively Modulates Luteinizing Hormone and Prolactin Secretion in Ovariectomized Ewes during Seasonal Anestrus

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          Abstract

          Through binding with estrogen receptors, phytoestrogens, plant-derived estrogen-like compounds, affect numerous reproductive functions. It is not known whether these compounds are capable of evoking effective changes in luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) secretion in ewes by acting directly within the central nervous system (CNS). The hypothesis studied was that genistein, infused for several hours into the third ventricle, could immediately affect LH and PRL secretion in ovariectomized (OVX) ewes during seasonal anestrus. Two doses of genistein, 1 µg/100 µl/h (total 4 µg, n = 7) and 10 µg/100 µl/h (total 40 µg, n = 7), were infused intracerebroventricularly from 12.00 to 16.00 h and blood samples were collected from 8.00 to 20.00 h at 10-min intervals. Randomly selected ewes were infused with a vehicle (control, n = 5). The mean plasma LH concentration in control ewes was significantly (p < 0.01) higher during infusion of the vehicle than before the infusion. It remained on an insignificantly changed level after the infusion. The frequency of LH pulses in control ewes did not differ significantly before, during, or after vehicle infusion. In ewes infused with a lower dose of genistein, plasma LH concentrations decreased significantly (p < 0.001) after the infusion, as compared with the values noted before and during genistein infusion. Only a tendency towards a decrease in LH pulse frequency occurred after infusion of a lower dose of genistein. In ewes infused with a higher dose of genistein, the plasma LH concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.01) after phytoestrogen administration as compared with the values noted before and during infusion. The frequency of LH pulses was also significantly (p < 0.01) lower after genistein administration. Because the changes in PRL secretion were more dynamic in response to genistein infusion, the statistical analysis included 2-hour periods. The mean plasma PRL concentration in control animals was significantly enhanced (p < 0.01) only during the first 2-hour period of sampling. After that it decreased and remained on an unchanged level up to the end of sampling. Similar changes in PRL secretion were observed in both experimental groups before genistein infusion. In contrast, significant (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001) increases in PRL concentration were noted regularly during and shortly after the genistein infusion in either low-dose or high-dose genistein-infused ewes, compared with the concentrations noted before genistein treatment. Plasma PRL concentrations during and after genistein infusion in both experimental groups were also significantly higher than the control (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). The presented data demonstrate that genistein, a phytoestrogen, may effectively modulate LH and PRL secretion in OVX ewes by acting within the CNS.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Genistein

           R. Dixon (2002)
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            Neuroendrocrine regulation of prolactin release

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              Localization of Estrogen-Receptive Neurons Projecting to the GnRH Neuron-Containing Rostral Preoptic Area of the Ewe

              Estrogen exerts important feedback effects upon the biosynthetic and secretory behavior of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to control reproductive functioning. The mechanism of estrogen action upon these neurons is unclear and seems likely to involve the transsynaptic regulation of GnRH neurons. The objective of the present study was to identify the estrogen-receptive neural populations which project to the general vicinity of the GnRH perikarya in the rostral preoptic area and diagonal band of Broca (rPOA/DBB) of the ewe. Intact breeding-season ewes received an injection of the retrograde tracer fluorogold (FG) into the rPOA/DBB, and their hypothalami and brainstems examined for the presence of FG and estrogen receptor α (ERα) immunocytochemistry. Retrogradely labeled neurons were identified principally within the lateral septum (LS), lamina terminalis, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, POA, arcuate nucleus (ARN), ventromedial nucleus (VMN) and median eminence. Smaller numbers of FG-immonoreactive cells were found in the caudal brainstem where they resided mostly in the ventrolateral medulla (VLM). Dual-labeled cells exhibiting both FG and ERα staining were prominent in the POA, LS and at all rostrocaudal levels of the VMN and ARN. Small numbers of dual-labeled cells were found in the VLM. These observations indicate that a number of distinct ERα-expressing neural populations project to the rPOA/DBB where the majority of the GnRH perikarya are found in the ewe. Although it is not possible to determine the direct connectivity of these projections with GnRH neurons, the findings provide an initial neuroanatomical framework through which the transsynaptic actions of estrogen on ovine GnRH neurons may be tested.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2004
                February 2004
                12 March 2004
                : 79
                : 2
                : 73-81
                Affiliations
                Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jabłonna n/Warsaw, Poland
                Article
                76630 Neuroendocrinology 2004;79:73–81
                10.1159/000076630
                15004429
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 51, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Reproductive Neuroendocrinology

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