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      Evaluation of Structures and Morphologies of Recycled PC/PET Blends Fabricated by High-Shear Kneading Processing

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          We fabricated polymer blends of recycled-PC (PC) and recycled-PET (PET) using high-shear processing technology. We also assessed its structure, morphology, and physical properties. Results of DSC measurements show that T g of PC and T c of PET shifted to higher temperatures by kneading under high-shear conditions. Results show further that the T m of PET shifted to a lower temperature. Moreover, compatibilization progressed. TEM observations show that the PET domain was not confirmed completely under the kneading condition of 1 000 min −1/10 s or more. Compatibilization progressed. Tensile test results show that the PET ratio of 30 wt% (1 000 min −1/10 s) has higher breaking strain than neat PC does. Chemical resistance test results obtained by good solvent of PC demonstrated that blending of PET makes PC elution difficult.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

          Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it may be possible to divert the majority of plastic waste from landfills to recycling over the next decades.
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            Fabrication of nanostructured polycarbonate/poly(methyl methacrylate) blends with improved optical and mechanical properties by high-shear processing

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              The Extensional Flow Mixer, EFM

              There are several reports indicating that deformation and breakup of dispersed drops is easier in extensional flow field than that in shear. This is particularly true for the systems containing the dispersed phase significantly more viscous than the matrix, e.g., blends in which the viscosity ratio λ – η disp /η matrix ≥3.8. These reports led to development of an extensional flow mixer, EFM, a device in which multicomponent, multiphase system [e.g., polymer alloys, blends, master-batches, filled systems] can be hydrodynamically mixed by flowing through a series of convergent/divergent regions of increasing intensity To be effective, EFM must be attached to a machine capable of melting and pressurizing the compound, preferably a single-screw extruder, SSE. In this paper efficiency of two compounding systems is compared, the first is made of a SSE and an EFM, while the second is a twin-screw extruder, TSE To evaluate the efficiency three types of blends, all characterized by high viscosity ratio, λ ≥ 3.8, were used: (i) high density polyethylene dispersed in polystyrene, HDPE/PS (ii) polypropylene impact-modified by addition of an ethylene-propylene elastomer, EPR/PP, and (iii) ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene added to high density polyethylene, UHMWPE/HDPE System (i) was used to study the effect of compounding on blend's morphology – the dispersion from the SSE + EFM compounding unit was significantly finer than that from TSE. System (ii) was selected to examine usefulness of EFM for impact modification. The results demonstrated that SSE + EFM provided milder compounding conditions that less shear-degraded PP than TSE The impact strength of specimens prepared in SSE + EFM was superior to that of blends compounded in TSE. The system (iii) was studied to examine the relative merit of SSE + EFM over TSE to produce a finer dispersion of the UHMWPE domains that in turn would result in better dissolution of this ultrahigh molecular weight fraction. Again in this case the SSE + EFM compounder outperformed TSE – the dissolution of UHMWPE was significantly better without parallel degradation of the resin.

                Author and article information

                International Polymer Processing
                Carl Hanser Verlag
                17 November 2017
                : 32
                : 5
                : 568-573
                1 Graduate School of Organic Materials Science, Yamagata University, Yamagata, Japan
                2 Aita Shokai Inc., Yamagata, Japan
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence address, Mail address: Hiroshi Ito, Graduate School of Organic Materials Science, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 492-8510, Japan, E-mail: ihiroshi@ 123456yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp
                © 2017, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich
                Page count
                References: 13, Pages: 6
                Self URI (journal page): http://www.hanser-elibrary.com/loi/ipp
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