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Periodic Exposure of Keratinocytes to Cold Physical Plasma: An In Vitro Model for Redox-Related Diseases of the Skin

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      Abstract

      Oxidative stress illustrates an imbalance between radical formation and removal. Frequent redox stress is critically involved in many human pathologies including cancer, psoriasis, and chronic wounds. However, reactive species pursue a dual role being involved in signaling on the one hand and oxidative damage on the other. Using a HaCaT keratinocyte cell culture model, we investigated redox regulation and inflammation to periodic, low-dose oxidative stress after two, six, eight, ten, and twelve weeks. Chronic redox stress was generated by recurrent incubation with cold physical plasma-treated cell culture medium. Using transcriptome microarray technology, we identified both acute ROS-stress responses as well as numerous adaptions after several weeks of redox challenge. We determined a differential expression (2-fold, FDR < 0.01, p < 0.05) of 260 genes that function in inflammation and redox homeostasis, such as cytokines (e.g., IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10), growth factors (e.g., CSF2, FGF, and IGF-2), and antioxidant enzymes (e.g., HMOX, NQO1, GPX, and PRDX). Apoptotic signaling was affected rather modestly, especially in p53 downstream targets (e.g., BCL2, BBC3, and GADD45). Strikingly, the cell-protective heat shock protein HSP27 was strongly upregulated ( p < 0.001). These results suggested cellular adaptions to frequent redox stress and may help to better understand the inflammatory responses in redox-related diseases.

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      Global cancer statistics, 2012.

      Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly applying effective prevention measures, such as tobacco control, vaccination, and the use of early detection tests. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
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        Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: estimates for 40 countries in 2012.

        Cancer incidence and mortality estimates for 25 cancers are presented for the 40 countries in the four United Nations-defined areas of Europe and for the European Union (EU-27) for 2012. We used statistical models to estimate national incidence and mortality rates in 2012 from recently-published data, predicting incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 from recent trends, wherever possible. The estimated rates in 2012 were applied to the corresponding population estimates to obtain the estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in Europe in 2012. There were an estimated 3.45 million new cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) and 1.75 million deaths from cancer in Europe in 2012. The most common cancer sites were cancers of the female breast (464,000 cases), followed by colorectal (447,000), prostate (417,000) and lung (410,000). These four cancers represent half of the overall burden of cancer in Europe. The most common causes of death from cancer were cancers of the lung (353,000 deaths), colorectal (215,000), breast (131,000) and stomach (107,000). In the European Union, the estimated numbers of new cases of cancer were approximately 1.4 million in males and 1.2 million in females, and around 707,000 men and 555,000 women died from cancer in the same year. These up-to-date estimates of the cancer burden in Europe alongside the description of the varying distribution of common cancers at both the regional and country level provide a basis for establishing priorities to cancer control actions in Europe. The important role of cancer registries in disease surveillance and in planning and evaluating national cancer plans is becoming increasingly recognised, but needs to be further advocated. The estimates and software tools for further analysis (EUCAN 2012) are available online as part of the European Cancer Observatory (ECO) (http://eco.iarc.fr). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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          DNA double-stranded breaks induce histone H2AX phosphorylation on serine 139.

          When mammalian cell cultures or mice are exposed to ionizing radiation in survivable or lethal amounts, novel mass components are found in the histone H2A region of two-dimensional gels. Collectively referred to as gamma, these components are formed in vivo by several procedures that introduce double-stranded breaks into DNA. gamma-Components, which appeared to be the only major novel components detected by mass or 32PO4 incorporation on acetic acid-urea-Triton X-100-acetic acid-urea-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or SDS-acetic acid-urea-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide gels after exposure of cells to ionizing radiation, are shown to be histone H2AX species that have been phosphorylated specifically at serine 139. gamma-H2AX appears rapidly after exposure of cell cultures to ionizing radiation; half-maximal amounts are reached by 1 min and maximal amounts by 10 min. At the maximum, approximately 1% of the H2AX becomes gamma-phosphorylated per gray of ionizing radiation, a finding that indicates that 35 DNA double-stranded breaks, the number introduced by each gray into the 6 x 10(9) base pairs of a mammalian G1 genome, leads to the gamma-phosphorylation of H2AX distributed over 1% of the chromatin. Thus, about 0.03% of the chromatin appears to be involved per DNA double-stranded break. This value, which corresponds to about 2 x 10(6) base pairs of DNA per double-stranded break, indicates that large amounts of chromatin are involved with each DNA double-stranded break. Thus, gamma-H2AX formation is a rapid and sensitive cellular response to the presence of DNA double-stranded breaks, a response that may provide insight into higher order chromatin structures.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Leibniz-Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald), ZIK plasmatis, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 2, 17489 Greifswald, Germany
            Author notes

            Academic Editor: Sergio Di Meo

            Journal
            Oxid Med Cell Longev
            Oxid Med Cell Longev
            OMCL
            Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
            Hindawi Publishing Corporation
            1942-0900
            1942-0994
            2016
            4 February 2016
            : 2016
            26966508
            4757748
            10.1155/2016/9816072
            Copyright © 2016 Anke Schmidt et al.

            This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Research Article

            Molecular medicine

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