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      A Case of Bladder Cancer after Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

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          Abstract

          An 86-year-old male who presented with the chief complaint of clot retention and had a history of prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy 11 years previously is described. Cystoscopy revealed radiation cystitis in coexistence with bladder cancer. Since bladder cancer may be present in patients with macroscopic hematuria who have a history of radiation therapy, referral to an urologist is recommended.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Cancer incidence after localized therapy for prostate cancer.

          Second cancers may occur in patients who have undergone radiation therapy. The risk for these adverse events after therapy is uncertain. In this study, the authors examined the size and significance of the observed association between occurrences of secondary cancers 5 years after radiotherapy in a large population of men with incident prostate cancer. Men with incident prostate cancer were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry and were distinguished by the type of treatment received, tumor stage, tumor grade, and age at diagnosis. SEER data also were used to identify occurrences of secondary cancer beginning 5 years after the date patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds of the subsequent occurrence of other cancers associated with types of radiation therapy received and was adjusted for the type of surgery, tumor grade, stage, and patient age. Compared with men who received no prostate cancer-directed radiation, men who received external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as their only form of radiation therapy had statistically significant increased odds of developing secondary cancers at several sites potentially related to radiation therapy, including the bladder (odds ratio [OR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.44-1.84) and rectum (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.29-1.99). Men who received EBRT also had statistically significant higher odds of developing secondary cancers at sites in the upper body and other areas not potentially related to radiation therapy, including the cecum (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.10-1.70), transverse colon (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.30-2.63), brain (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.22-2.75), stomach (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.09-1.75), melanoma (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.09-1.53), and lung and bronchus (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.13-1.37) compared with the odds among men who received no radiation therapy. Men who received radiation therapy in the form of radioactive implants or isotopes, either in isolation or combined with beam radiation, did not have significantly different odds of secondary cancer occurring at any of the 20 most common sites. Patients who received with EBRT had significantly higher odds of developing second cancers both overall and in the areas that were exposed to radiation. It is noteworthy that, to the authors' knowledge, this report shows for the first time that, despite the higher doses of radiation delivered, patients who received radioactive implants had the lowest odds of developing second cancers.
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            Management of radiation cystitis.

            Acute radiation cystitis occurs during or soon after radiation treatment. It is usually self-limiting, and is generally managed conservatively. Late radiation cystitis, on the other hand, can develop from 6 months to 20 years after radiation therapy. The main presenting symptom is hematuria, which may vary from mild to severe, life-threatening hemorrhage. Initial management includes intravenous fluid replacement, blood transfusion if indicated and transurethral catheterization with bladder washout and irrigation. Oral or parenteral agents that can be used to control hematuria include conjugated estrogens, pentosan polysulfate or WF10. Cystoscopy with laser fulguration or electrocoagulation of bleeding points is sometimes effective. Injection of botulinum toxin A in the bladder wall may relieve irritative bladder symptoms. Intravesical instillation of aluminum, placental extract, prostaglandins or formalin can also be effective. More-aggressive treatment options include selective embolization or ligation of the internal iliac arteries. Surgical options include urinary diversion by percutaneous nephrostomy or intestinal conduit, with or without cystectomy. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) involves the administration of 100% oxygen at higher than atmospheric pressure. The reported success rate of HBOT for radiation cystitis varies from 60% to 92%. An important multicenter, double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of HBOT for refractory radiation cystitis is currently being conducted.
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              Evaluation of narrow-band imaging as a complementary method for the detection of bladder cancer.

              We evaluated the use of narrow-band imaging (NBI) cystoscopy for the detection of bladder cancer and analyzed its diagnostic efficacy in cases of carcinoma in situ (CIS) and in cases with known urine cytology results. A prospective controlled study of NBI was conducted in 104 consecutive patients with definite or suspected bladder cancer. Transurethral targeted biopsies were performed after white light imaging (WLI) and NBI cystoscopy, and the histologic outcomes were compared. A total of 313 biopsies were taken, including 161 from sites identified as potentially abnormal by NBI and/or WLI cystoscopy, and 152 from apparently normal sites. The percentage of malignancies in the sites identified only by NBI was 55.7% (39/70 places). In 26.9% of patients (28/104), bladder tumors were detected only by NBI. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and likelihood ratio of a negative test (NLR) for the detection of bladder tumors using NBI in all patients were 92.7%, 70.9%, 63.4%, 94.7%, and 0.10, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and NLR for the detection of CIS using NBI were 89.7%, 74.5%, 78.8%, 87.2%, and 0.14, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and NLR for the detection of bladder tumors using NBI in patients with positive vs negative urine cytology were 85.4% vs 98.4%, 75.7% vs 66.3%, 61.2% vs 64.5%, 92.0% vs 98.5%, and 0.19 vs 0.02, respectively. NBI is a simple and effective method for identifying bladder tumors including CIS without the need for dyes because of its high sensitivity, high NPV, and low NLR.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRU
                CND
                10.1159/issn.2296-9705
                Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
                S. Karger AG
                2296-9705
                2014
                January – April 2014
                27 March 2014
                : 4
                : 1
                : 53-59
                Affiliations
                Department of Urology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                Author notes
                *Takeo Kosaka, MD, PhD, Department of Urology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan), E-Mail takemduro@gmail.com
                Article
                361013 PMC3999451 Case Rep Nephrol Urol 2014;4:53-59
                10.1159/000361013
                PMC3999451
                24803918
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Published: March 2014

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Prostate cancer, Radiation therapy, Hematuria, Bladder cancer

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