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      Skin disorders among children living in orphanage centres in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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          Abstract

          Background

          Skin conditions contribute significantly to the global burden of diseases and are among the leading causes of non-fatal disease burden. Children living in orphanage centres are vulnerable to several conditions including dermatological disorders, and there is limited data on the burden of these conditions among orphans in Tanzania. This study was carried out to determine the pattern of dermatological conditions and contributing factors among orphans in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

          Methodology

          A cross-sectional study was conducted among 420 children aged less than 18 years from 12 orphanage centres in Dar es Salaam. Guided interviews using structured questionnaires were carried out to obtain socio-demographic and clinical data from participants. Clinical examination was performed for each participant and whenever indicated skin scrapings and biopsy were obtained.

          Results

          Four hundred and twenty participants were recruited out of which 281 (66.9%) were male, mean and median ages of participants were 11 ± 3.7 and 12 years, respectively. Two hundred and twenty-five (53.6%) participants were aged between 6 and12 years. Proportion of children with dermatological manifestations among participants was 57.4%. Two hundred and ninety-six diagnoses were made comprising of 192 (64.9%) infections and 104 (35.1%) non-infectious conditions. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection while acne vulgaris was the most common non-infectious condition. Proportionately more male children were affected as compared to female ones, p = 0.006.

          Conclusion

          Skin conditions are common among children living in orphanage centres in Dar es Salaam. Infectious conditions were predominant conditions and male children were more affected than female children. Reducing crowding and improving hygienic practices in these centres will be important in reducing the burden of these conditions.

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          Most cited references 19

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          The global burden of skin disease in 2010: an analysis of the prevalence and impact of skin conditions.

          The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2010 estimated the GBD attributable to 15 categories of skin disease from 1990 to 2010 for 187 countries. For each of the following diseases, we performed systematic literature reviews and analyzed resulting data: eczema, psoriasis, acne vulgaris, pruritus, alopecia areata, decubitus ulcer, urticaria, scabies, fungal skin diseases, impetigo, abscess, and other bacterial skin diseases, cellulitis, viral warts, molluscum contagiosum, and non-melanoma skin cancer. We used disability estimates to determine nonfatal burden. Three skin conditions, fungal skin diseases, other skin and subcutaneous diseases, and acne were in the top 10 most prevalent diseases worldwide in 2010, and eight fell into the top 50; these additional five skin problems were pruritus, eczema, impetigo, scabies, and molluscum contagiosum. Collectively, skin conditions ranged from the 2nd to 11th leading cause of years lived with disability at the country level. At the global level, skin conditions were the fourth leading cause of nonfatal disease burden. Using more data than has been used previously, the burden due to these diseases is enormous in both high- and low-income countries. These results argue strongly to include skin disease prevention and treatment in future global health strategies as a matter of urgency.
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            The spectrum of dermatological disorders among primary school children in Dar es Salaam

            Background Dermatologic disorders are common in many countries but the spectrum varies greatly. Many studies have reported a significant burden of skin diseases in school children. The objective of this study was to determine the current spectrum of dermatological disorders in primary school children in Dar es Salaam city. Methods Primary school children were recruited by multistage sampling. Detailed interview, dermatological examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were performed. Data was analyzed using the 'Statistical Package for Social Sciences' (SPSS) program version 10.0 and EPI6. A p-value of < 0.5 was significant. Results A total of 420 children were recruited (51% males; mean age 11.4 ± 2.8 years; range 6-19 years). The overall point prevalence of any skin disorder was 57.3% and it was 61.9% and 52.6% in males and females respectively (p = 0.05). Infectious dermatoses accounted for 30.4% with superficial fungal infections (dermatophytoses and pityriasis versicolor) being the commonest (20%). Dermatophytoses were diagnosed in 11.4% (48/420); the prevalence in males and females being 12.6% and 10.1% respectively (p = 0.41) and higher (21.8%) in the age-group 6-10 years (p = 0.045). Fungal cultures were positive in 42/48 children (88%). All three dermatophyte genera were isolated. Tinea capitis was the commonest disease among culture-positive dermatophytoses (30/42; 71.4%) with an overall prevalence of 7.1% (30/420) followed by tinea pedis (11/42; 26.1%) whose overall prevalence was 2.6%. Microsporum canis was common in tinea capitis (14/30; 46.7%) followed by Trichophyton violaceum (6/30; 20%). Trichophyton rubrum was common in tinea pedis (5/11; 45.5%). Thirty six children (8.6%) had pityriasis versicolor which was more prevalent (6/27; 22.l2%) in the age group 16-19 years (p = 0.0004). The other common infectious dermatoses were pyodermas (4%) and pediculosis capitis (3.6%). Common non-infectious dermatoses were: acne vulgaris (36.4%), non-specific dermatoses (10.7%), non-specific ulcers (5%) and atopic eczema (2.6%). Rare conditions (prevalence < 1%) included: vitiligo, alopecia areata and intertrigo. The majority of the affected children (67.2%) did not seek any medical assistance. Conclusions Skin disorders are common in primary school children; infectious dermatoses are still rampant and many children do not seek medical assistance.
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              Prevalence of skin diseases in rural areas of Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt.

              Few epidemiological surveys have been carried out to determine the prevalence of skin diseases in the population of Egypt, particularly "Upper Egypt". So it is a pressing necessity to conduct such a study in rural Assiut. To determine the prevalence of various skin diseases in rural Assiut. A cross-sectional community-based survey was followed. The survey included 8008 rural inhabitants of all ages and both sexes from a representative of three villages of Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt. The data were collected through personal interview and examination at homes from December 1994 to December 1996. They showed that 6961 (86.93%) of the studied population had one or more skin diseases. The group with parasitic skin infestations had the highest prevalence rate (27.40%) of the total sample, of which pediculosis capitis (19.37%) was the commonest. Eczema/dermatitis group had a rate of 19.82%, with pityriasis alba forming the majority (13.49%). Pigmentary disorders were 17.68%, followed by fungal skin infections (16.17%), then naevoid disorders (16.10%), hair and scalp disorders (12.07%), bacterial skin infections (10.10%), sweat gland disorders (6.16%), acne vulgaris (5.37%). Leprosy constituted 1.6/10,000. Other various skin disorders were recorded. Infective-parasitic diseases were a major problem particularly among the younger age-group and those of low socio-economic status.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                mwanaidamiri@gmail.com
                fredrick.francis78@gmail.com
                drbakari@yahoo.com
                Journal
                Trop Med Health
                Trop Med Health
                Tropical Medicine and Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                1348-8945
                1349-4147
                30 April 2020
                30 April 2020
                2020
                : 48
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.25867.3e, ISNI 0000 0001 1481 7466, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, School of Medicine, , Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, ; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
                [2 ]GRID grid.25867.3e, ISNI 0000 0001 1481 7466, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, , Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, ; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
                Article
                216
                10.1186/s41182-020-00216-9
                7191825
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                Short Report
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                © The Author(s) 2020

                Medicine

                skin disorder in tanzania, orphanage centres, skin disorders in children

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