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      Combining food‐based dietary recommendations using Optifood with zinc‐fortified water potentially improves nutrient adequacy among 4‐ to 6‐year‐old children in Kisumu West district, Kenya

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          Abstract

          Children in developing countries often face multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Introduction of zinc‐fortified water can increase zinc intake, but additional recommendations are required to address overall diet nutrient adequacy. We developed and tested food‐based recommendations (FBRs) that included zinc‐fortified water for children aged between 4 and 6 years from rural Kenya to achieve the best possible nutrient adequacy. Dietary intakes of 60 children aged 4–6 years, from Kisumu West district, Kenya, were assessed using a quantitative multipass 24‐hr recall. Linear programming model parameters were derived, including a list of foods consumed, median serving sizes, and distribution of frequency of consumption. By using the Optifood linear programming tool, we developed FBRs for diets including zinc‐fortified water. FBRs with nutrient levels achieving ≥70% recommended nutrient intake (RNI) of the World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations RNI for most of the 12 considered nutrients were selected as the final recommendations for the children. With no FBRs and no zinc‐fortified water, percent RNI coverage range was between 40% and 76% for zinc, improving to 66–101% after introduction of zinc‐fortified water. The final set of FBRs achieved nutrient adequacy for all nutrients except for vitamin A (25% RNI) and folate (68% RNI). Introduction of zinc‐fortified water combined with FBRs will likely improve the nutrient adequacy of diets consumed by children in Kenya but needs to be complemented with alternative interventions to ensure dietary adequacy.

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          Author and article information

          Contributors
          pchopera@gmail.com
          Journal
          Matern Child Nutr
          Matern Child Nutr
          10.1111/(ISSN)1740-8709
          MCN
          Maternal & Child Nutrition
          John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
          1740-8695
          1740-8709
          19 September 2017
          April 2018
          : 14
          : 2 ( doiID: 10.1111/mcn.2018.14.issue-2 )
          : e12515
          Affiliations
          [ 1 ] Division of Human Nutrition Wageningen University Wageningen The Netherlands
          [ 2 ] Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology Kakamega Kenya
          [ 3 ] Maseno University Maseno Kenya
          [ 4 ] Laboratory of Human Nutrition, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health ETH Zurich Zurich Switzerland
          Author notes
          [*] [* ] Correspondence

          Prosper Kujinga, Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708WE Wageningen, The Netherlands.

          Email: pchopera@ 123456gmail.com

          Author information
          http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3824-2788
          Article
          PMC6866207 PMC6866207 6866207 MCN12515 MCN-12-16-OA-2403.R2
          10.1111/mcn.12515
          6866207
          28925036
          4f2d2257-d980-4187-b1b2-da1688c2eb5e
          © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
          History
          : 18 December 2016
          : 09 July 2017
          : 30 August 2017
          Page count
          Figures: 1, Tables: 6, Pages: 12, Words: 5531
          Funding
          Funded by: NUFFIC (Netherlands Organisation for International Cooperation in Higher Education) , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100001718;
          Award ID: 11/152
          Funded by: Vestergaard Frandsen S.A. (Lausanne, Switzerland)
          Categories
          Original Article
          Original Articles
          Custom metadata
          2.0
          April 2018
          Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.7.2 mode:remove_FC converted:19.11.2019

          zinc,water,diets,children, Optifood
          zinc, water, diets, children, Optifood

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