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      Aortic Pulse Pressure and Aortic Pulsatility in Patients with Coronary Slow Flow

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          Abstract

          Objective: Coronary slow flow (CSF) is an angiographic phenomenon characterized by delayed opacification of coronary arteries in the absence of obstructive coronary disease. Recently, increased aortic pulse pressure (PP) and aortic pulsatility were both linked to the presence of angiographic coronary artery disease. In this study aortic PP and aortic pulsatility, derived from the invasively measured ascending aortic pressure waveform, were analyzed in patients with CSF and otherwise normal epicardial coronary arteries and compared with those with completely normal coronary arteries. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with CSF (35 men, mean age: 51.7 ± 10 years) and fifty age and gender-matched controls (34 men, 51.1 ± 9 years) were included in the study. For determination of coronary flow, the thrombosis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count method was used. Blood pressure waveforms of the ascending aorta were measured during cardiac catheterization with a fluid-filled system. Aortic pulsatility was estimated as the ratio of aortic PP to mean pressure. Results: Study groups were well matched with respect to age, gender and atherosclerotic risk factors. Although systolic, diastolic and mean pressures of the ascending aorta were similar, aortic PP (60.5 ± 19 vs. 51.7 ± 14 mm Hg, p = 0.01) and aortic pulsatility (0.63 ± 0.1 vs. 0.54 ± 0.1, p = 0.006) were significantly higher in patients with CSF compared with the controls. Besides, in all subjects, corrected TIMI frame counts of all three coronary arteries correlated with both ascending aorta PP and aortic pulsatility values. No association was found between corrected TIMI frame counts of coronary arteries and aortic mean blood pressure or brachial blood pressure parameters. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that CSF is, as with obstructive coronary artery disease, associated with more diffuse vascular disease rather than being an isolated finding.

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          Angina pectoris and slow flow velocity of dye in coronary arteries--a new angiographic finding.

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            Slow coronary flow: clinical and histopathological features in patients with otherwise normal epicardial coronary arteries.

            Slow flow of dye in epicardial coronary arteries is not an infrequent finding in patients during routine coronary angiography. Whether this pattern of flow can be reversed by nitroglycerin or dipyridamole and whether this angiographic finding is associated with histopathological abnormalities is unknown. We hypothesized that this abnormality could be associated with small vessel disease of the heart, since the epicardial arteries are usually widely patent. Thus, out of the patients undergoing heart catheterization at our institution during the past 5 years, 10 (7%) presented with chest pain, normal epicardial coronary arteries, and abnormal coronary progression of dye. Rest electrocardiogram (ECG), exercise test, echocardiographic examination, and left ventricular angiogram were normal. Coronary angiography showed slow flow of dye on a total of 20 main coronary vessels, that was not reversed by intracoronary nitroglycerin administration. Six of them underwent dipyridamole intravenous infusion that normalized dye run-off in all affected vessels, for a total of 9 main coronary vessels. Histopathological examination (light and electron microscope) of left ventricular endomyocardial biopsies showed thickening of vessel walls with luminal size reduction, mitochondrial abnormalities, and glycogen content reduction. Normal and pathological zones often coexisted in the same specimen. Thus. In some patients with slow coronary flow and patent coronary arteries, functional obstruction of microvessels seems to be implicated, as it is relieved by dipyridamole infusion. Patchy histopathological abnormalities suggestive of small vessel disease are also detectable and could contribute to increase flow resistance.
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              Seven year survival of patients with normal or near normal coronary arteriograms: a CASS registry study.

              The effect on 7 year survival of having a normal or near normal coronary arteriogram was examined using data from the CASS registry of 21,487 consecutive coronary arteriograms taken in 15 clinical sites. Of these, 4,051 arteriograms were normal or near normal, and the patients had normal left ventricular function as judged by absence of a history of congestive heart failure, no reported segmental wall motion abnormality and an ejection fraction of at least 50%; 3,136 arteriograms were entirely normal and the remaining 915 revealed mild disease with less than 50% stenosis in one or more segments. The 7 year survival rate was 96% for the patients with a normal arteriogram and 92% for those whose study revealed mild disease (p less than 0.0001). Nine risk variables recorded at entry were analyzed for predictive value for survival: age, sex, height, weight, history of smoking, presence of absence of mild disease, electrocardiographic response to exercise, family history of coronary heart disease and a history of hypertension. Of these, age, smoking history, presence or absence of disease and a history of hypertension had predictive value.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2007
                May 2007
                01 September 2006
                : 107
                : 4
                : 233-238
                Affiliations
                Department of Cardiology, Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey
                Article
                95423 Cardiology 2007;107:233–238
                10.1159/000095423
                16953108
                4f3efaa3-8367-4276-b064-3fab583fcb6a
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 19 July 2005
                : 16 June 2006
                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 19, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Research

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Coronary slow flow,Pulse pressure,Aortic pulsatility

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