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      Myocardial T1 mapping and extracellular volume quantification: a Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) and CMR Working Group of the European Society of Cardiology consensus statement

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          Abstract

          Rapid innovations in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) now permit the routine acquisition of quantitative measures of myocardial and blood T1 which are key tissue characteristics. These capabilities introduce a new frontier in cardiology, enabling the practitioner/investigator to quantify biologically important myocardial properties that otherwise can be difficult to ascertain clinically. CMR may be able to track biologically important changes in the myocardium by: a) native T1 that reflects myocardial disease involving the myocyte and interstitium without use of gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA), or b) the extracellular volume fraction (ECV)–a direct GBCA-based measurement of the size of the extracellular space, reflecting interstitial disease. The latter technique attempts to dichotomize the myocardium into its cellular and interstitial components with estimates expressed as volume fractions. This document provides recommendations for clinical and research T1 and ECV measurement, based on published evidence when available and expert consensus when not. We address site preparation, scan type, scan planning and acquisition, quality control, visualisation and analysis, technical development. We also address controversies in the field. While ECV and native T1 mapping appear destined to affect clinical decision making, they lack multi-centre application and face significant challenges, which demand a community-wide approach among stakeholders. At present, ECV and native T1 mapping appear sufficiently robust for many diseases; yet more research is required before a large-scale application for clinical decision-making can be recommended.

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          Most cited references 43

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          From vulnerable plaque to vulnerable patient: a call for new definitions and risk assessment strategies: Part I.

          Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease results in >19 million deaths annually, and coronary heart disease accounts for the majority of this toll. Despite major advances in treatment of coronary heart disease patients, a large number of victims of the disease who are apparently healthy die suddenly without prior symptoms. Available screening and diagnostic methods are insufficient to identify the victims before the event occurs. The recognition of the role of the vulnerable plaque has opened new avenues of opportunity in the field of cardiovascular medicine. This consensus document concludes the following. (1) Rupture-prone plaques are not the only vulnerable plaques. All types of atherosclerotic plaques with high likelihood of thrombotic complications and rapid progression should be considered as vulnerable plaques. We propose a classification for clinical as well as pathological evaluation of vulnerable plaques. (2) Vulnerable plaques are not the only culprit factors for the development of acute coronary syndromes, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Vulnerable blood (prone to thrombosis) and vulnerable myocardium (prone to fatal arrhythmia) play an important role in the outcome. Therefore, the term "vulnerable patient" may be more appropriate and is proposed now for the identification of subjects with high likelihood of developing cardiac events in the near future. (3) A quantitative method for cumulative risk assessment of vulnerable patients needs to be developed that may include variables based on plaque, blood, and myocardial vulnerability. In Part I of this consensus document, we cover the new definition of vulnerable plaque and its relationship with vulnerable patients. Part II of this consensus document focuses on vulnerable blood and vulnerable myocardium and provide an outline of overall risk assessment of vulnerable patients. Parts I and II are meant to provide a general consensus and overviews the new field of vulnerable patient. Recently developed assays (eg, C-reactive protein), imaging techniques (eg, CT and MRI), noninvasive electrophysiological tests (for vulnerable myocardium), and emerging catheters (to localize and characterize vulnerable plaque) in combination with future genomic and proteomic techniques will guide us in the search for vulnerable patients. It will also lead to the development and deployment of new therapies and ultimately to reduce the incidence of acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac death. We encourage healthcare policy makers to promote translational research for screening and treatment of vulnerable patients.
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            Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: the STARD initiative.

            To improve the accuracy and completeness of reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy, to allow readers to assess the potential for bias in a study, and to evaluate a study's generalisability. The Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) steering committee searched the literature to identify publications on the appropriate conduct and reporting of diagnostic studies and extracted potential items into an extensive list. Researchers, editors, and members of professional organisations shortened this list during a two day consensus meeting, with the goal of developing a checklist and a generic flow diagram for studies of diagnostic accuracy. The search for published guidelines about diagnostic research yielded 33 previously published checklists, from which we extracted a list of 75 potential items. At the consensus meeting, participants shortened the list to a 25 item checklist, by using evidence, whenever available. A prototype of a flow diagram provides information about the method of patient recruitment, the order of test execution, and the numbers of patients undergoing the test under evaluation and the reference standard, or both. Evaluation of research depends on complete and accurate reporting. If medical journals adopt the STARD checklist and flow diagram, the quality of reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy should improve to the advantage of clinicians, researchers, reviewers, journals, and the public.
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              Equilibrium contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance for the measurement of diffuse myocardial fibrosis: preliminary validation in humans.

              Diffuse myocardial fibrosis is a final end point in most cardiac diseases. It is missed by the cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) late gadolinium enhancement technique. Currently, quantifying diffuse myocardial fibrosis requires invasive biopsy, with inherent risk and sampling error. We have developed a robust and noninvasive technique, equilibrium contrast CMR (EQ-CMR) to quantify diffuse fibrosis and have validated it against the current gold standard of surgical myocardial biopsy. The 3 principles of EQ-CMR are a bolus of extracellular gadolinium contrast followed by continuous infusion to achieve equilibrium; a blood sample to measure blood volume of distribution (1-hematocrit); and CMR to measure pre- and postequilibrium T1 (with heart rate correction). The myocardial volume of distribution is calculated, reflecting diffuse myocardial fibrosis. Clinical validation occurred in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis or myectomy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n=18 and n=8, respectively). Surgical biopsies were analyzed for picrosirius red fibrosis quantification on histology. The mean histological fibrosis was 20.5+/-11% in aortic stenosis and 17.1+/-7.4% in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. EQ-CMR correlated strongly with biopsy histological fibrosis: aortic stenosis, r(2)=0.86, Kendall Tau coefficient (T)=0.71, P<0.001; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, r(2)=0.62, T=0.52, P=0.08; combined r(2)=0.80, T=0.67, P<0.001. We have developed and validated a new technique, EQ-CMR, to measure diffuse myocardial fibrosis as an add-on to a standard CMR scan, which allows for the noninvasive quantification of the diffuse fibrosis burden in myocardial diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]The Heart Hospital, London, UK
                [2 ]Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London, UK
                [3 ]Department of Congenital Heart Disease and Pediatric Cardiology, Deutsches Herzzentrum Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                [4 ]National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
                [5 ]Oxford Centre for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
                [6 ]Department of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
                [7 ]NIHR Cardiovascular BRU, Royal Brompton Hospital & Imperial College, London, UK
                [8 ]Departments of Cardiology and Radiology, Montreal Heart Institute, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada
                [9 ]Department of Cardiology and Nephrology, Working Group Cardiac MRI, Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                [10 ]Charite Campus Buch Experimental and Clinical Research Center, HELIOS Klinikum Berlin Buch, Berlin, Germany
                [11 ]UPMC Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Center, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
                Contributors
                Journal
                J Cardiovasc Magn Reson
                J Cardiovasc Magn Reson
                Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
                BioMed Central
                1097-6647
                1532-429X
                2013
                14 October 2013
                : 15
                : 1
                : 92
                1532-429X-15-92
                10.1186/1532-429X-15-92
                3854458
                24124732
                Copyright © 2013 Moon et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                Position Statement

                Cardiovascular Medicine

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