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      Synergetic Effect of Silver Nanoparticles and UVC Irradiation on H2AX Gene Expression in TK6 Cells

      research-article
      , M.Sc 1 , , Ph.D 1 , 2 , * , , M.Sc 3
      Cell Journal (Yakhteh)
      Royan Institute
      Genotoxicity, H2AX, Nanoparticles, Silver, Ultraviolet

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          Abstract

          Objective

          The use of nanoscale particles, for instance silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) has considerably increased recently. Since Ag NPs can be transmuted into silver ions; the toxicity and genotoxicity of these NPs along with other external factors such as ultraviolet type C (UVC) irradiation must be evaluated. In the present study, the aim was to investigate the genotoxic effects Ag NPs and UVC co-exposure on human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells.

          Materials and Methods

          In this experimental study, Ag NPs (~20 nm) were purchased from US Research Nanomaterials Inc. and H2AX gene expression was evaluated using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 1 and 24 hours post Ag NPs and UVC treatment.

          Results

          Results showed that treatment of TK6 cells with different Ag NP concentrations without exposure to UVC can reduce H2AX gene expression, but treatment of these cells with Ag NPs in combination UVC irradiation can reduce viability that leads to a synergistic increase in the amount of H2AX gene expression.

          Conclusion

          According to our findings, Ag NPs can act to sensitize cells to UVC radiation when used for cancer treatment. So, combination of Ag NPs and UVC irradiation could be used in radiotherapy.

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          Most cited references30

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          Silver as antibacterial agent: ion, nanoparticle, and metal.

          The antibacterial action of silver is utilized in numerous consumer products and medical devices. Metallic silver, silver salts, and also silver nanoparticles are used for this purpose. The state of research on the effect of silver on bacteria, cells, and higher organisms is summarized. It can be concluded that the therapeutic window for silver is narrower than often assumed. However, the risks for humans and the environment are probably limited. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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            In vitro toxicity of nanoparticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells.

            This study was undertaken to address the current deficient knowledge of cellular response to nanosized particle exposure. The study evaluated the acute toxic effects of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles proposed for future use in industrial production methods using the in vitro rat liver derived cell line (BRL 3A). Different sizes of nanoparticles such as silver (Ag; 15, 100 nm), molybdenum (MoO(3); 30, 150 nm), aluminum (Al; 30, 103 nm), iron oxide (Fe(3)O(4); 30, 47 nm), and titanium dioxide (TiO(2); 40 nm) were evaluated for their potential toxicity. We also assessed the toxicity of relatively larger particles of cadmium oxide (CdO; 1 microm), manganese oxide (MnO(2); 1-2 microm), and tungsten (W; 27 microm), to compare the cellular toxic responses with respect to the different sizes of nanoparticles with different core chemical compositions. For toxicity evaluations, cellular morphology, mitochondrial function (MTT assay), membrane leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed under control and exposed conditions (24h of exposure). Results showed that mitochondrial function decreased significantly in cells exposed to Ag nanoparticles at 5-50 microg/ml. However, Fe(3)O(4), Al, MoO(3) and TiO(2) had no measurable effect at lower doses (10-50 microg/ml), while there was a significant effect at higher levels (100-250 microg/ml). LDH leakage significantly increased in cells exposed to Ag nanoparticles (10-50 microg/ml), while the other nanoparticles tested displayed LDH leakage only at higher doses (100-250 microg/ml). In summary the Ag was highly toxic whereas, MoO(3) moderately toxic and Fe(3)O(4), Al, MnO(2) and W displayed less or no toxicity at the doses tested. The microscopic studies demonstrated that nanoparticle-exposed cells at higher doses became abnormal in size, displaying cellular shrinkage, and an acquisition of an irregular shape. Due to toxicity of silver, further study conducted with reference to its oxidative stress. The results exhibited significant depletion of GSH level, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in ROS levels, which suggested that cytotoxicity of Ag (15, 100 nm) in liver cells is likely to be mediated through oxidative stress.
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              Evidence for a lack of DNA double-strand break repair in human cells exposed to very low x-ray doses.

              DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generally accepted to be the most biologically significant lesion by which ionizing radiation causes cancer and hereditary disease. However, no information on the induction and processing of DSBs after physiologically relevant radiation doses is available. Many of the methods used to measure DSB repair inadvertently introduce this form of damage as part of the methodology, and hence are limited in their sensitivity. Here we present evidence that foci of gamma-H2AX (a phosphorylated histone), detected by immunofluorescence, are quantitatively the same as DSBs and are capable of quantifying the repair of individual DSBs. This finding allows the investigation of DSB repair after radiation doses as low as 1 mGy, an improvement by several orders of magnitude over current methods. Surprisingly, DSBs induced in cultures of nondividing primary human fibroblasts by very low radiation doses (approximately 1 mGy) remain unrepaired for many days, in strong contrast to efficient DSB repair that is observed at higher doses. However, the level of DSBs in irradiated cultures decreases to that of unirradiated cell cultures if the cells are allowed to proliferate after irradiation, and we present evidence that this effect may be caused by an elimination of the cells carrying unrepaired DSBs. The results presented are in contrast to current models of risk assessment that assume that cellular responses are equally efficient at low and high doses, and provide the opportunity to employ gamma-H2AX foci formation as a direct biomarker for human exposure to low quantities of ionizing radiation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell J
                Cell J
                Royan Institute
                Cell Journal (Yakhteh)
                Royan Institute
                2228-5806
                2228-5814
                Summer 2019
                25 February 2019
                : 21
                : 2
                : 204-209
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Radiology, School of Paramedical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
                [2 ]Ionizing and Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC), Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
                [3 ]Diagnostic Laboratory Sciences and Technology Research Center, School of Paramedical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
                Author notes
                [*Corresponding Address: ]P.O.Box: 7193636578Department of RadiologySchool of Paramedical SciencesShiraz University of Medical Sciences ShirazIran Email: rfardid@ 123456sums.ac.ir
                Article
                Cell-J-21-204
                10.22074/cellj.2019.5898
                6397600
                30825294
                4f4cd6bc-52a4-45a7-84e6-12f89a8e299c
                The Cell Journal (Yakhteh) is an open access journal which means the articles are freely available online for any individual author to download and use the providing address.

                The journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 3.0 Unported License which allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions that is permitting unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Article
                Radiology and Imaging
                Genetics
                Custom metadata
                Zare T, Fardid R, Naderi S. Synergetic effect of silver nanoparticles and UVC irradiation on H2AX gene expression in TK6 cells. Cell J. 2019; 21(2): 204-209. doi: 10.22074/cellj.2019. 5898.

                genotoxicity,h2ax,nanoparticles,silver,ultraviolet
                genotoxicity, h2ax, nanoparticles, silver, ultraviolet

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