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      Reproductive strategies in snakes.

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      Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society

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          Abstract

          Snakes of both sexes display remarkable flexibility and diversity in their reproductive tactics. Many features of reproduction in female snakes (such as reproductive mode and frequency, seasonality and multiple mating) allow flexible maternal control. For example, females can manipulate not only the genotypes of their offspring (through mate choice or enhanced sperm competition) but also the phenotypes of their offspring (through allocation 'decisions', behavioural and physiological thermoregulation, and nest-site selection). Reliance on stored energy ('capital') to fuel breeding results in low frequencies of female reproduction and, in extreme cases, semelparity. A sophisticated vomeronasal system not only allows male snakes to locate reproductive females by following scent trails, but also facilitates pheromonally mediated mate choice by males. Male-male rivalry takes diverse forms, including female mimicry and mate guarding; combat bouts impose strong selection for large body size in males of some species. Intraspecific (geographical) variation and phenotypic plasticity in a wide array of reproductive traits (offspring size and number; reproductive frequency; incidence of multiple mating; male tactics such as mate guarding and combat; mate choice criteria) provide exceptional opportunities for future studies.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Proc. Biol. Sci.
          Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society
          0962-8452
          0962-8452
          May 22 2003
          : 270
          : 1519
          Affiliations
          [1 ] School of Biological Sciences A08, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. rics@bio.usyd.edu.au
          Article
          10.1098/rspb.2002.2307
          1691341
          12803888
          4f4e2459-9949-40cb-bcd6-6884a9975392

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