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      Recent Clinical Advances in the Management of Critically Ill Patients with Acute Renal Failure

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          Background: Significant progress has been made in the field of renal replacement therapy for critically ill patients with acute renal failure (ARF) over the past few years. This review highlights these developments. Methods: Recent studies assessing the clinical utility of the RIFLE classification system for the diagnosis of ARF were reviewed. Clinical outcome studies evaluating the effect of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) dose and timing of initiation were assessed. The final review topic was the effect of dialysis modality on the recovery of renal function in ARF patients. Conclusions: Based on recent clinical studies, the increasing use of the RIFLE criteria is justified, as this approach appears to be a robust method for both the diagnosis of and prognostication in ARF. A large randomized trial involving convective CRRT supports the commonly used prescription of 35 ml/ kg/h in clinical practice. Moreover, numerous recent outcome studies, also largely involving convective CRRT, provide a clinical rationale for the increasingly common clinical practice of earlier initiation. Finally, several recent studies suggest CRRT, relative to conventional hemodialysis, results in a greater rate of renal recovery in ARF patients.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Acute kidney injury, mortality, length of stay, and costs in hospitalized patients.

          The marginal effects of acute kidney injury on in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and costs have not been well described. A consecutive sample of 19,982 adults who were admitted to an urban academic medical center, including 9210 who had two or more serum creatinine (SCr) determinations, was evaluated. The presence and degree of acute kidney injury were assessed using absolute and relative increases from baseline to peak SCr concentration during hospitalization. Large increases in SCr concentration were relatively rare (e.g., >or=2.0 mg/dl in 105 [1%] patients), whereas more modest increases in SCr were common (e.g., >or=0.5 mg/dl in 1237 [13%] patients). Modest changes in SCr were significantly associated with mortality, LOS, and costs, even after adjustment for age, gender, admission International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis, severity of illness (diagnosis-related group weight), and chronic kidney disease. For example, an increase in SCr >or=0.5 mg/dl was associated with a 6.5-fold (95% confidence interval 5.0 to 8.5) increase in the odds of death, a 3.5-d increase in LOS, and nearly 7500 dollars in excess hospital costs. Acute kidney injury is associated with significantly increased mortality, LOS, and costs across a broad spectrum of conditions. Moreover, outcomes are related directly to the severity of acute kidney injury, whether characterized by nominal or percentage changes in serum creatinine.
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            Minimal changes of serum creatinine predict prognosis in patients after cardiothoracic surgery: a prospective cohort study.

            Acute renal failure increases risk of death after cardiac surgery. However, it is not known whether more subtle changes in renal function might have an impact on outcome. Thus, the association between small serum creatinine changes after surgery and mortality, independent of other established perioperative risk indicators, was analyzed. In a prospective cohort study in 4118 patients who underwent cardiac and thoracic aortic surgery, the effect of changes in serum creatinine within 48 h postoperatively on 30-d mortality was analyzed. Cox regression was used to correct for various established demographic preoperative risk indicators, intraoperative parameters, and postoperative complications. In the 2441 patients in whom serum creatinine decreased, early mortality was 2.6% in contrast to 8.9% in patients with increased postoperative serum creatinine values. Patients with large decreases (DeltaCrea or =0.5 mg/dl. For all groups, increases in mortality remained significant in multivariate analyses, including postoperative renal replacement therapy. After cardiac and thoracic aortic surgery, 30-d mortality was lowest in patients with a slight postoperative decrease in serum creatinine. Any even minimal increase or profound decrease of serum creatinine was associated with a substantial decrease in survival.
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              Effects of different doses in continuous veno-venous haemofiltration on outcomes of acute renal failure: a prospective randomised trial.

              Continuous veno-venous haemofiltration is increasingly used to treat acute renal failure in critically ill patients, but a clear definition of an adequate treatment dose has not been established. We undertook a prospective randomised study of the impact different ultrafiltration doses in continuous renal replacement therapy on survival. We enrolled 425 patients, with a mean age of 61 years, in intensive care who had acute renal failure. Patients were randomly assigned ultrafiltration at 20 mL h(-1) kg(-1) (group 1, n=146), 35 mL h(-1) kg(-1) (group 2, n=139), or 45 mL h(-1) kg(-1) (group 3, n=140). The primary endpoint was survival at 15 days after stopping haemofiltration. We also assessed recovery of renal function and frequency of complications during treatment. Analysis was by intention to treat. Survival in group 1 was significantly lower than in groups 2 (p=0.0007) and 3 (p=0.0013). Survival in groups 2 and 3 did not differ significantly (p=0.87). Adjustment for possible confounding factors did not change the pattern of differences among the groups. Survivors in all groups had lower concentrations of blood urea nitrogen before continuous haemofiltration was started than non-survivors. 95%, 92%, and 90% of survivors in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, had full recovery of renal function. The frequency of complications was similarly low in all groups. Mortality among these critically ill patients was high, but increase in the rate of ultrafiltration improved survival significantly. We recommend that ultrafiltration should be prescribed according to patient's bodyweight and should reach at least 35 mL h(-1) kg(-1).

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                December 2006
                21 December 2006
                : 24
                : 5-6
                : 487-498
                aNephrology Division, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Ind., bGambro Renal Products, Lakewood, Colo., USA; cSaitama Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan; dAustin Hospital, Heidelberg, Vic., Australia; eDepartment of Nephrology, St. Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy
                95929 Blood Purif 2006;24:487–498
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 63, Pages: 12
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