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      Dual oxidase 1 limits the IFNγ-associated antitumor effect of macrophages

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          Macrophages play pivotal roles in tumor progression and the response to anticancer therapies, including radiotherapy (RT). Dual oxidase (DUOX) 1 is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a critical role in oxidant generation.


          Since we found DUOX1 expression in macrophages from human lung samples exposed to ionizing radiation, we aimed to assess the involvement of DUOX1 in macrophage activation and the role of these macrophages in tumor development.


          Using Duox1 −/− mice, we demonstrated that the lack of DUOX1 in proinflammatory macrophages improved the antitumor effect of these cells. Furthermore, intratumoral injection of Duox1 −/− proinflammatory macrophages significantly enhanced the antitumor effect of RT. Mechanistically, DUOX1 deficiency increased the production of proinflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, CXCL9, CCL3 and TNFα) by activated macrophages in vitro and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II in the membranes of macrophages. We also demonstrated that DUOX1 was involved in the phagocytotic function of macrophages in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor effect of Duox1 −/− macrophages was associated with a significant increase in IFNγ production by both lymphoid and myeloid immune cells.


          Our data indicate that DUOX1 is a new target for macrophage reprogramming and suggest that DUOX1 inhibition in macrophages combined with RT is a new therapeutic strategy for the management of cancers.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Oxidative innate immune defenses by Nox/Duox family NADPH oxidases.

          The importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in innate immunity was first recognized in professional phagocytes undergoing a 'respiratory burst'upon activation. This robust oxygen consumption is related to a superoxide-generating enzyme, the phagocytic NADPH oxidase (Nox2-based or phox). The oxidase is essential for microbial killing, since patients lacking a functional oxidase suffer from enhanced susceptibility to microbial infections. ROS derived from superoxide attack bacteria in the isolated niche of the neutrophil phagosome. The oxidase is electrogenic, alters ion currents across membranes, induces apoptosis, regulates cytokine production, influences gene expression, and promotes formation of extracellular traps. Recently, new homologues of Nox2 were discovered establishing the Nox family of NADPH oxidases that encompasses seven members. Nox1 is highly expressed in the colon epithelium, and can be induced by LPS or IFN- gamma. Nox4 was implicated in innate immunity since LPS induces Nox4-dependent ROS generation. Duox1 and Duox2 localize to the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells in major airways, salivary glands, and the gastrointestinal tract, and provide extracellular hydrogen peroxide to lactoperoxidase to produce antimicrobial hypothiocyanite ions. Th1 and Th2 cytokines regulate expression of dual oxidases in human airways and may thereby act in host defense or in proinflammatory responses.
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            Marginating dendritic cells of the tumor microenvironment cross-present tumor antigens and stably engage tumor-specific T cells.

            The nature and site of tumor-antigen presentation to immune T cells by bone-marrow-derived cells within the tumor microenvironment remains unresolved. We generated a fluorescent mouse model of spontaneous immunoevasive breast cancer and identified a subset of myeloid cells with significant similarity to dendritic cells and macrophages that constitutively ingest tumor-derived proteins and present processed tumor antigens to reactive T cells. Using intravital live imaging, we determined that infiltrating tumor-specific T cells engage in long-lived interactions with these cells, proximal to the tumor. In vitro, these cells capture cytotoxic T cells in signaling-competent conjugates but do not support full activation or sustain cytolysis. The spatiotemporal dynamics revealed here implicate nonproductive interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells on the tumor margin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Peripheral prepositioning and local CXCL9 chemokine-mediated guidance orchestrate rapid memory CD8+ T cell responses in the lymph node.

              After an infection, the immune system generates long-lived memory lymphocytes whose increased frequency and altered state of differentiation enhance host defense against reinfection. Recently, the spatial distribution of memory cells was found to contribute to their protective function. Effector memory CD8+ T cells reside in peripheral tissue sites of initial pathogen encounter, in apparent anticipation of reinfection. Here we show that within lymph nodes (LNs), memory CD8+ T cells were concentrated near peripheral entry portals of lymph-borne pathogens, promoting rapid engagement of infected sentinel macrophages. A feed-forward CXCL9-dependent circuit provided additional chemotactic cues that further increase local memory cell density. Memory CD8+ T cells also produced effector responses to local cytokine triggers, but their dynamic behavior differed from that seen after antigen recognition. These data reveal the distinct localization and dynamic behavior of naive versus memory T cells within LNs and how these differences contribute to host defense. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                J Immunother Cancer
                J Immunother Cancer
                Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                21 June 2020
                : 8
                : 1
                [1 ] INSERM U1030, Molecular Radiotherapy, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Université Paris-Saclay , Villejuif, France
                [2 ] Labex LERMIT, DHU TORINO, SIRIC SOCRATE , Villejuif, France
                [3 ] departmentCNRS UMR 8200 , Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Université Paris-Saclay , Villejuif, France
                [4 ] Department of Radiation Oncology, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus , Villejuif, France
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Lydia Meziani; lydia.meziani@

                MM and ED are joint senior authors.

                © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

                This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See

                Funded by: FundRef, Institut National Du Cancer;
                Award ID: INCA 2014-1-PL-BIO-03
                Immune Cell Therapies and Immune Cell Engineering
                Original research
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