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      Changes in Patterns of Social Role Combinations at Ages 25–26 among Those Growing Up in England between 1996 and 2015–16: Evidence from the 1970 British Cohort and Next Steps Studies


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          Changes across education, employment, and family life over the past 20 years challenges the capacity of previously established social role combinations to continue representing the experiences of young men and women born since the late 1980s. Latent class analysis was used to derive patterns of role combinations at ages 25–26 in those growing up in England, using data from 3191 men and 3921 women in the 1970 British Cohort Study (1996) and 3426 men and 4281 women in the Next Steps study born in 1989–90 (2015–16). Role combinations in 1996 were well defined by five patterns across genders: educated, work-oriented, traditional family, fragile family, and slow starters. Patterns in 2015–16 diverged across genders (e.g., disappearance of home ownership in the traditional family group among men and higher education as a group identifier among women) and included across genders fewer work-oriented, more slow starters, and a new group of “left behind” who are excluded from work and relationships. Young men and women born around 1990 experienced diverging role combinations characterized by increased delays and inequalities, with fewer being able to attain the milestones traditionally associated with the transition to adulthood by the mid-20s.

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          Most cited references44

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          Deciding on the Number of Classes in Latent Class Analysis and Growth Mixture Modeling: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study

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            Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties.

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              Pathways to Adulthood in Changing Societies: Variability and Mechanisms in Life Course Perspective


                Author and article information

                J Youth Adolesc
                J Youth Adolesc
                Journal of Youth and Adolescence
                Springer US (New York )
                16 July 2021
                16 July 2021
                : 50
                : 10
                : 2052-2066
                [1 ]International Centre for Lifecourse Studies in Society and Health (ICLS), London, UK
                [2 ]GRID grid.83440.3b, ISNI 0000000121901201, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, , University College London, ; London, UK
                [3 ]GRID grid.83440.3b, ISNI 0000000121901201, Department of Social Science, , University College London, ; London, UK
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                : 30 April 2021
                : 30 June 2021
                Empirical Research
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                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2021

                Health & Social care
                united kingdom,transition to adulthood,social inequalities,latent class analysis,1970 british cohort study,next steps study


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