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      A randomized, controlled trial of quadriceps resistance exercise and vitamin D in frail older people: the Frailty Interventions Trial in Elderly Subjects (FITNESS).

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          Abstract

          To determine the effectiveness of vitamin D and home-based quadriceps resistance exercise on reducing falls and improving the physical health of frail older people after hospital discharge.

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          The effect of strength and endurance training on gait, balance, fall risk, and health services use in community-living older adults.

          The study tested the effect of strength and endurance training on gait, balance, physical health status, fall risk, and health services use in older adults. The study was a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial with intention-to-treat analysis. Adults (n = 105) age 68-85 with at least mild deficits in strength and balance were selected from a random sample of enrollees in a health maintenance organization. The intervention was supervised exercise (1-h sessions, three per week, for 24-26 weeks), followed by self-supervised exercise. Exercise groups included strength training using weight machines (n = 25), endurance training using bicycles (n = 25), and strength and endurance training (n = 25). Study outcomes included gait tests, balance tests, physical health status measures, self-reported falls (up to 25 months of follow-up), and inpatient and outpatient use and costs. There were no effects of exercise on gait, balance, or physical health status. Exercise had a protective effect on risk of falling (relative hazard = .53, 95% CI = .30-.91). Between 7 and 18 months after randomization, control subjects had more outpatient clinic visits (p < .06) and were more likely to sustain hospital costs over $5000 (p < .05). Exercise may have beneficial effects on fall rates and health care use in some subgroups of older adults. In community-living adults with mainly mild impairments in gait, balance, and physical health status, short-term exercise may not have a restorative effect on these impairments.
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            Screening for frailty: criteria and predictors of outcomes.

            To determine the reliability of rapid screening by clinically derived geriatric criteria in predicting outcomes of elderly hospitalized patients. Prospective cohort study of 985 patients screened at the time of hospital admission and followed for 1 year with respect to the outcomes of mortality, hospital readmission, and nursing home utilization. Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Medical Center, a tertiary care teaching hospital. Male patients 65 years of age and older admitted to the Medical and Surgical services during the period from October 1, 1985 through September 30, 1986. Patients were grouped by specific screening criteria into three groups of increasing frailty: Independent, Frail, and Severely Impaired. Each criterion focused on a geriatric condition and was designed to serve as a marker for frailty. Increasing frailty was significantly correlated with increasing length of hospital stay (P less than 0.0001), nursing home utilization (P less than 0.0001), and mortality (P less than 0.0001). Multivariate analyses revealed that the clinical groups were more predictive of mortality and nursing home utilization than were age or Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs). Rehospitalization was unrelated to age, clinical group, or DRG, suggesting that utilization may not be driven by the clinical factors measured in this study. Rapid clinical screening using specific geriatric criteria is effective in identifying frail older subjects at risk for mortality and nursing home utilization. Our findings suggest that geriatric syndromes are more predictive of adverse outcomes than diagnosis per se. This well operationalized screening process is inexpensive as well as effective and could easily be introduced into other hospital settings.
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              Effects of resistive and balance exercises on isokinetic strength in older persons.

              To determine the safety and efficacy of 3 months of resistive training of multiple lower extremity muscle groups compared with balance training in persons over 75 years. Randomized 3-month clinical trial. Subjects (n = 110, mean age 80) were randomized to 4 groups in a 2 x 2 design (control, resistive, balance, combined resistive/balance). Resistive training involved knee extension and flexion, hip abduction and extension, and plantar and dorsiflexion using simple resistive machines and sandbags. Balance training consisted of exercises to improve postural control. The control group attended 5 health-related discussion sessions. Summed isokinetic moments (N m) of 8 leg movements: hip, knee and ankle flexion/extension, and hip abduction/adduction. Secondary outcomes were gait velocity and chair rise time. Summed peak moment increased in both resistive exercise-trained groups (13% increase in the resistive group and 21% in the combined training group, P < 0.001). The effect of resistance training was significant (MANOVA F = 21.1, P < 0.001), but balance training did not improve strength, and there was no interaction (positive or negative) between balance and resistive training. Maximal gait velocity and chair rise time did not improve. Eleven subjects (20%) had musculoskeletal complaints related to resistive training, but all were able to complete the program with modifications. Resistive training using simple equipment is an effective and acceptable method to increase overall leg strength in older persons. Resistive or balance training did not improve maximal gait velocity or chair rise time in this sample of relatively healthy older persons.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Am Geriatr Soc
                Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
                0002-8614
                0002-8614
                Mar 2003
                : 51
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Clinical Trials Research Unit, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. nlatham@bu.edu
                Article
                jgs51101
                12588571
                4f6f185b-2aea-48f4-8f1a-b485694b9bbe

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