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Recent developments in nanostructured anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

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      Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon

       Sumio Iijima (1991)
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        Nanostructured materials for advanced energy conversion and storage devices.

        New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. This review describes some recent developments in the discovery of nanoelectrolytes and nanoelectrodes for lithium batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors. The advantages and disadvantages of the nanoscale in materials design for such devices are highlighted.
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          High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires.

          There is great interest in developing rechargeable lithium batteries with higher energy capacity and longer cycle life for applications in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and implantable medical devices. Silicon is an attractive anode material for lithium batteries because it has a low discharge potential and the highest known theoretical charge capacity (4,200 mAh g(-1); ref. 2). Although this is more than ten times higher than existing graphite anodes and much larger than various nitride and oxide materials, silicon anodes have limited applications because silicon's volume changes by 400% upon insertion and extraction of lithium which results in pulverization and capacity fading. Here, we show that silicon nanowire battery electrodes circumvent these issues as they can accommodate large strain without pulverization, provide good electronic contact and conduction, and display short lithium insertion distances. We achieved the theoretical charge capacity for silicon anodes and maintained a discharge capacity close to 75% of this maximum, with little fading during cycling.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            EESNBY
            Energy & Environmental Science
            Energy Environ. Sci.
            Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
            1754-5692
            1754-5706
            2011
            2011
            : 4
            : 8
            : 2682
            10.1039/c0ee00699h
            © 2011
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            Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=c0ee00699h

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