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      Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Wastewater Treatment Plants: Minimization, Treatment, and Prevention

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      Journal of Chemistry
      Hindawi Limited

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          Abstract

          The operation of wastewater treatment plants results in direct emissions, from the biological processes, of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as carbon dioxide (CO 2), methane (CH 4), and nitrous oxide (N 2O), as well as indirect emissions resulting from energy generation. In this study, three possible ways to reduce these emissions are discussed and analyzed: ( 1 ) minimization through the change of operational conditions, ( 2 ) treatment of the gaseous streams, and ( 3 ) prevention by applying new configurations and processes to remove both organic matter and pollutants. In current WWTPs, to modify the operational conditions of existing units reveals itself as possibly the most economical way to decrease N 2O and CO 2emissions without deterioration of effluent quality. Nowadays the treatment of the gaseous streams containing the GHG seems to be a not suitable option due to the high capital costs of systems involved to capture and clean them. The change of WWTP configuration by using microalgae or partial nitritation-Anammox processes to remove ammonia from wastewater, instead of conventional nitrification-denitrification processes, can significantly reduce the GHG emissions and the energy consumed. However, the area required in the case of microalgae systems and the current lack of information about stability of partial nitritation-Anammox processes operating in the main stream of the WWTP are factors to be considered.

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          Full-scale partial nitritation/anammox experiences--an application survey.

          Partial nitritation/anammox (PN/A) has been one of the most innovative developments in biological wastewater treatment in recent years. With its discovery in the 1990s a completely new way of ammonium removal from wastewater became available. Over the past decade many technologies have been developed and studied for their applicability to the PN/A concept and several have made it into full-scale. With the perspective of reaching 100 full-scale installations in operation worldwide by 2014 this work presents a summary of PN/A technologies that have been successfully developed, implemented and optimized for high-strength ammonium wastewaters with low C:N ratios and elevated temperatures. The data revealed that more than 50% of all PN/A installations are sequencing batch reactors, 88% of all plants being operated as single-stage systems, and 75% for sidestream treatment of municipal wastewater. Additionally an in-depth survey of 14 full-scale installations was conducted to evaluate practical experiences and report on operational control and troubleshooting. Incoming solids, aeration control and nitrate built up were revealed as the main operational difficulties. The information provided gives a unique/new perspective throughout all the major technologies and discusses the remaining obstacles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            The sequencing batch reactor as a powerful tool for the study of slowly growing anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing microorganisms

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              A review of the effects of emerging contaminants in wastewater and options for their removal

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Chemistry
                Journal of Chemistry
                Hindawi Limited
                2090-9063
                2090-9071
                2016
                2016
                : 2016
                :
                : 1-12
                Article
                10.1155/2016/3796352
                4f876825-c30c-49f2-9f33-9e4a6d37d738
                © 2016

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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