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      Hypolipidemic effect of SIPI-7623, a derivative of an extract from oriental wormwood, through farnesoid X receptor antagonism

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          Abstract

          Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. As a metabolic regulator, FXR plays key roles in bile acid and cholesterol metabolism and lipid and glucose homeostasis. Therefore, FXR is a potential drug target for several metabolic syndromes, especially those related to lipidemia disorders. In the present study, we identified small molecule SIPI-7623, a derivative of an extract from Oriental wormwood (Artemisia capillaris), and found that it specifically upregulated the expression of cholesterol-7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), downregulated the expression of sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) in the liver, and inhibited the expression of ileal bile acid binding-protein (IBABP) in the ileum of rats. We found that inhibition of FXR by SIPI-7623 decreased the level of cholesterol and triglyceride. SIPI-7623 reduced the levels of cholesterol and triglyceride in in vitro HepG2 cell models, ameliorated diet-induced atherosclerosis, and decreased the serum lipid content on rats and rabbits model of atherosclerosis in vivo. Furthermore, SIPI-7623 decreased the extent of atherosclerotic lesions. Our resutls demonstrated that antagonism of the FXR pathway can be employed as a therapeutic strategy to treat metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. In conclusion, SIPI-7623 could be a promising lead compound for development of drugs to treat hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Bile acids lower triglyceride levels via a pathway involving FXR, SHP, and SREBP-1c.

          We explored the effects of bile acids on triglyceride (TG) homeostasis using a combination of molecular, cellular, and animal models. Cholic acid (CA) prevents hepatic TG accumulation, VLDL secretion, and elevated serum TG in mouse models of hypertriglyceridemia. At the molecular level, CA decreases hepatic expression of SREBP-1c and its lipogenic target genes. Through the use of mouse mutants for the short heterodimer partner (SHP) and liver X receptor (LXR) alpha and beta, we demonstrate the critical dependence of the reduction of SREBP-1c expression by either natural or synthetic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists on both SHP and LXR alpha and LXR beta. These results suggest that strategies aimed at increasing FXR activity and the repressive effects of SHP should be explored to correct hypertriglyceridemia.
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            Identification of a nuclear receptor that is activated by farnesol metabolites.

            Nuclear hormone receptors comprise a superfamily of ligand-modulated transcription factors that mediate the transcriptional activities of steroids, retinoids, and thyroid hormones. A growing number of related proteins have been identified that possess the structural features of hormone receptors, but that lack known ligands. Known as orphan receptors, these proteins represent targets for novel signaling molecules. We have isolated a mammalian orphan receptor that forms a heterodimeric complex with the retinoid X receptor. A screen of candidate ligands identified farnesol and related metabolites as effective activators of this complex. Farnesol metabolites are generated intracellularly and are required for the synthesis of cholesterol, bile acids, steroids, retinoids, and farnesylated proteins. Intermediary metabolites have been recognized as transcriptional regulators in bacteria and yeast. Our results now suggest that metabolite-controlled intracellular signaling systems are utilized by higher organisms.
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              Bile acid receptors as targets for the treatment of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease.

              Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis. When dyslipidemia coincides with other metabolic disorders such as obesity, hypertension, and glucose intolerance, defined as the metabolic syndrome (MS), individuals present an elevated risk to develop type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as CVD. Because the MS epidemic represents a growing public health problem worldwide, the development of therapies remains a major challenge. Alterations of bile acid pool regulation in T2D have revealed a link between bile acid and metabolic homeostasis. The bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5 both regulate lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism, rendering them potential pharmacological targets for MS therapy. This review discusses the mechanisms of metabolic regulation by FXR and TGR5 and the utility relevance of natural and synthetic modulators of FXR and TGR5 activity, including bile acid sequestrants, in the treatment of the MS.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CJNM
                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                Elsevier
                1875-5364
                20 August 2018
                : 16
                : 8
                : 572-579
                Affiliations
                1Department of Pharmacology, Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai 200437, China
                2Jiangsu Carephar Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Nanjing 210016, China
                Author notes
                *Corresponding authors: Liu MY, Tel: 86-21-65041206, E-mail: liuminmyu_lmy@ 123456163.com ; Wang GP, E-mail: 13501701009@ 123456139.com

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Article
                S1875-5364(18)30094-3
                10.1016/S1875-5364(18)30094-3
                Copyright © 2018 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
                Funding
                Funded by: Shanghai Committee of Science and Technology
                Award ID: 16431903500
                This work was supported by Shanghai Committee of Science and Technology (No. 16431903500).
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                Research Articles

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