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      Expanding the role of Australian pharmacists in community pharmacies in chronic pain management - a narrative review

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          Abstract

          Chronic pain is a condition where patients continuously experience pain symptoms for at least 3 to 6 months. It is one of the leading causes of disabilities across the globe. Failure to adequately manage chronic pain often results in additional health concerns that may directly contribute to the worsening symptoms of pain. Community pharmacists are an important healthcare resource that contributes to patient care, yet their roles in chronic pain management are often not fully utilised. This review aimed to investigate and explore pharmacist-driven chronic pain educational and medication management interventions in community pharmacies on an international level, and thereby identify if there are potential benefits in modelling and incorporating these interventions in the Australian community. We found a number of studies conducted in Europe and the United States investigated the benefits of pharmacist-driven educational and medication management interventions in the context of chronic pain management. Results demonstrated that there were improvements in the pain scores, depression/anxiety scales and physical functionality in patient groups receiving the pharmacist driven-interventions, thereby highlighting the clinical benefit of these interventions in chronic pain. In conclusion, pharmacists are trustworthy and responsible advocates for medication reviews and patient education. There are currently very limited formal nationally recognised pharmacist-driven intervention programs dedicated to chronic pain management in Australian community pharmacies. International studies have shown that pharmacist-driven chronic pain interventions undertaken in community pharmacies are of benefit with regards to alleviating pain symptoms and adverse events. Furthermore, it is also clear that research around the application of pharmacist-led chronic pain interventions in Australia is lacking. Modelling interventions that have been conducted overseas may be worth exploring in Australia. The implementation of similar intervention programs for Australian pharmacists in community pharmacies may provide enhanced clinical outcomes for patients suffering from chronic pain. The recently implemented Chronic Pain MedsCheck Trial may provide some answers.

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          Most cited references 50

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          The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection.

          A 36-item short-form (SF-36) was constructed to survey health status in the Medical Outcomes Study. The SF-36 was designed for use in clinical practice and research, health policy evaluations, and general population surveys. The SF-36 includes one multi-item scale that assesses eight health concepts: 1) limitations in physical activities because of health problems; 2) limitations in social activities because of physical or emotional problems; 3) limitations in usual role activities because of physical health problems; 4) bodily pain; 5) general mental health (psychological distress and well-being); 6) limitations in usual role activities because of emotional problems; 7) vitality (energy and fatigue); and 8) general health perceptions. The survey was constructed for self-administration by persons 14 years of age and older, and for administration by a trained interviewer in person or by telephone. The history of the development of the SF-36, the origin of specific items, and the logic underlying their selection are summarized. The content and features of the SF-36 are compared with the 20-item Medical Outcomes Study short-form.
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            A 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey: construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity.

            Regression methods were used to select and score 12 items from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) to reproduce the Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scales in the general US population (n=2,333). The resulting 12-item short-form (SF-12) achieved multiple R squares of 0.911 and 0.918 in predictions of the SF-36 Physical Component Summary and SF-36 Mental Component Summary scores, respectively. Scoring algorithms from the general population used to score 12-item versions of the two components (Physical Components Summary and Mental Component Summary) achieved R squares of 0.905 with the SF-36 Physical Component Summary and 0.938 with SF-36 Mental Component Summary when cross-validated in the Medical Outcomes Study. Test-retest (2-week)correlations of 0.89 and 0.76 were observed for the 12-item Physical Component Summary and the 12-item Mental Component Summary, respectively, in the general US population (n=232). Twenty cross-sectional and longitudinal tests of empirical validity previously published for the 36-item short-form scales and summary measures were replicated for the 12-item Physical Component Summary and the 12-item Mental Component Summary, including comparisons between patient groups known to differ or to change in terms of the presence and seriousness of physical and mental conditions, acute symptoms, age and aging, self-reported 1-year changes in health, and recovery for depression. In 14 validity tests involving physical criteria, relative validity estimates for the 12-item Physical Component Summary ranged from 0.43 to 0.93 (median=0.67) in comparison with the best 36-item short-form scale. Relative validity estimates for the 12-item Mental Component Summary in 6 tests involving mental criteria ranged from 0.60 to 107 (median=0.97) in relation to the best 36-item short-form scale. Average scores for the 2 summary measures, and those for most scales in the 8-scale profile based on the 12-item short-form, closely mirrored those for the 36-item short-form, although standard errors were nearly always larger for the 12-item short-form.
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              Survey of chronic pain in Europe: prevalence, impact on daily life, and treatment.

              This large scale computer-assisted telephone survey was undertaken to explore the prevalence, severity, treatment and impact of chronic pain in 15 European countries and Israel. Screening interviews identified respondents aged 18 years with chronic pain for in-depth interviews. 19% of 46,394 respondents willing to participate (refusal rate 46%) had suffered pain for 6 months, had experienced pain in the last month and several times during the last week. Their pain intensity was 5 on a 10-point Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) (1 = no pain, 10 = worst pain imaginable) during last episode of pain. In-depth interviews with 4839 respondents with chronic pain (about 300 per country) showed: 66% had moderate pain (NRS = 5-7), 34% had severe pain (NRS = 8-10), 46% had constant pain, 54% had intermittent pain. 59% had suffered with pain for two to 15 years, 21% had been diagnosed with depression because of their pain, 61% were less able or unable to work outside the home, 19% had lost their job and 13% had changed jobs because of their pain. 60% visited their doctor about their pain 2-9 times in the last six months. Only 2% were currently treated by a pain management specialist. One-third of the chronic pain sufferers were currently not being treated. Two-thirds used non-medication treatments, e.g,. massage (30%), physical therapy (21%), acupuncture (13%). Almost half were taking non-prescription analgesics; 'over the counter' (OTC) NSAIDs (55%), paracetamol (43%), weak opioids (13%). Two-thirds were taking prescription medicines: NSAIDs (44%), weak opioids (23%), paracetamol (18%), COX-2 inhibitors (1-36%), and strong opioids (5%). Forty percent had inadequate management of their pain. Interesting differences between countries were observed, possibly reflecting differences in cultural background and local traditions in managing chronic pain. Chronic pain of moderate to severe intensity occurs in 19% of adult Europeans, seriously affecting the quality of their social and working lives. Very few were managed by pain specialists and nearly half received inadequate pain management. Although differences were observed between the 16 countries, we have documented that chronic pain is a major health care problem in Europe that needs to be taken more seriously.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, Discipline of Pharmacy, RMIT University . Bundoora, VIC (Australia). john.mishriky@ 123456rmit.edu.au
                Professor and Discipline Head of Pharmacy. School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, Discipline of Pharmacy, RMIT University . Bundoora, VIC (Australia). ieva.stupans@ 123456rmit.edu.au
                School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, Discipline of Pharmacy, RMIT University . Bundoora, VIC (Australia). vincent.chan@ 123456rmit.edu.au
                Contributors
                ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5412-3821,
                School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, Discipline of Pharmacy, RMIT University . Bundoora, VIC (Australia). john.mishriky@ 123456rmit.edu.au
                ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8193-6905,
                Professor and Discipline Head of Pharmacy. School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, Discipline of Pharmacy, RMIT University . Bundoora, VIC (Australia). ieva.stupans@ 123456rmit.edu.au
                ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5536-1565,
                School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, Discipline of Pharmacy, RMIT University . Bundoora, VIC (Australia). vincent.chan@ 123456rmit.edu.au
                Journal
                Pharm Pract (Granada)
                Pharm Pract (Granada)
                Pharmacy Practice
                Centro de Investigaciones y Publicaciones Farmaceuticas
                1885-642X
                1886-3655
                Jan-Mar 2019
                18 February 2019
                : 17
                : 1
                6463420 pharmpract-17-1410 10.18549/PharmPract.2019.1.1410
                Copyright: © Pharmacy Practice

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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