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      Cannabinoids and COVID-19

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          Abstract

          Since the endocannabinoid system is involved in immune function, the effect of cannabinoid intake on infectious conditions is questioned for several years and is of particular interest in the COVID 19 pandemia. Some data suggest that the immunomodulatory effect of cannabinoids may affect the course and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Given the large number of cannabinoids consumers in the community, this commentary presents the current knowledge on the potential impact of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids on bacterial and viral infection courses namely SARS-CoV-2 disease. Practical recommendations, which can be drawn from the literature, are given.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Cannabidiol in patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (GWPCARE4): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial

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            Phytocannabinoids: a unified critical inventory.

            Covering up to January 2016Cannabis sativa L. is a prolific, but not exclusive, producer of a diverse group of isoprenylated resorcinyl polyketides collectively known as phytocannabinoids. The modular nature of the pathways that merge into the phytocannabinoid chemotype translates in differences in the nature of the resorcinyl side-chain and the degree of oligomerization of the isoprenyl residue, making the definition of phytocannabinoid elusive from a structural standpoint. A biogenetic definition is therefore proposed, splitting the phytocannabinoid chemotype into an alkyl- and a β-aralklyl version, and discussing the relationships between phytocannabinoids from different sources (higher plants, liverworts, fungi). The startling diversity of cannabis phytocannabinoids might be, at least in part, the result of non-enzymatic transformations induced by heat, light, and atmospheric oxygen on a limited set of major constituents (CBG, CBD, Δ(9)-THC and CBC and their corresponding acidic versions), whose degradation is detailed to emphasize this possibility. The diversity of metabotropic (cannabinoid receptors), ionotropic (thermos-TRPs), and transcription factors (PPARs) targeted by phytocannabinoids is discussed. The integrated inventory of these compounds and their biological macromolecular end-points highlights the opportunities that phytocannabinoids offer to access desirable drug-like space beyond the one associated to the narcotic target CB1.
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              Molecular Targets of the Phytocannabinoids: A Complex Picture.

              For centuries, hashish and marihuana, both derived from the Indian hemp Cannabis sativa L., have been used for their medicinal, as well as, their psychotropic effects. These effects are associated with the phytocannabinoids which are oxygen containing C21 aromatic hydrocarbons found in Cannabis sativa L. To date, over 120 phytocannabinoids have been isolated from Cannabis. For many years, it was assumed that the beneficial effects of the phytocannabinoids were mediated by the cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. However, today we know that the picture is much more complex, with the same phytocannabinoid acting at multiple targets. This contribution focuses on the molecular pharmacology of the phytocannabinoids, including Δ9-THC and CBD, from the prospective of the targets at which these important compounds act.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Med Cannabis Cannabinoids
                Med Cannabis Cannabinoids
                MCA
                Medical Cannabis and Cannabinoids
                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, karger@karger.com )
                2504-3889
                19 August 2020
                : 1-5
                Affiliations
                [1 ] aDivision of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
                [2 ] bDivision of Primary Care, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
                Author notes
                *Myriam El Biali, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Geneva University Hospitals, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, CH–1205 Geneva (Switzerland), myriam.elbiali@ 123456hcuge.ch
                Article
                mca-0001
                10.1159/000510799
                7490504
                Copyright © 2020 by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                Page count
                References: 43, Pages: 5
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