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      USP19 deubiquitinates EWS-FLI1 to regulate Ewing sarcoma growth

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          Abstract

          Ewing sarcoma is the second most common pediatric bone and soft tissue tumor presenting with an aggressive behavior and prevalence to metastasize. The diagnostic translocation t(22;11)(q24;12) leads to expression of the chimeric oncoprotein EWS-FLI1 which is uniquely expressed in all tumor cells and maintains their survival. Constant EWS-FLI1 protein turnover is regulated by the ubiquitin proteasome system. Here, we now identified ubiquitin specific protease 19 (USP19) as a regulator of EWS-FLI1 stability using an siRNA based screening approach. Depletion of USP19 resulted in diminished EWS-FLI1 protein levels and, vice versa, upregulation of active USP19 stabilized the fusion protein. Importantly, stabilization appears to be specific for the fusion protein as it could not be observed neither for EWSR1 nor for FLI1 wild type proteins even though USP19 binds to the N-terminal EWS region to regulate deubiquitination of both EWS-FLI1 and EWSR1. Further, stable shUSP19 depletion resulted in decreased cell growth and diminished colony forming capacity in vitro, and significantly delayed tumor growth in vivo. Our findings not only provide novel insights into the importance of the N-terminal EWSR1 domain for regulation of fusion protein stability, but also indicate that inhibition of deubiquitinating enzyme(s) might constitute a novel therapeutic strategy in treatment of Ewing sarcoma.

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          A genomic and functional inventory of deubiquitinating enzymes.

          Posttranslational modification of proteins by the small molecule ubiquitin is a key regulatory event, and the enzymes catalyzing these modifications have been the focus of many studies. Deubiquitinating enzymes, which mediate the removal and processing of ubiquitin, may be functionally as important but are less well understood. Here, we present an inventory of the deubiquitinating enzymes encoded in the human genome. In addition, we review the literature concerning these enzymes, with particular emphasis on their function, specificity, and the regulation of their activity.
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            Gene fusion with an ETS DNA-binding domain caused by chromosome translocation in human tumours.

            Ewing's sarcoma and related subtypes of primitive neuroectodermal tumours share a recurrent and specific t(11;22) (q24;q12) chromosome translocation, the breakpoints of which have recently been cloned. Phylogenetically conserved restriction fragments in the vicinity of EWSR1 and EWSR2, the genomic regions where the breakpoints of chromosome 22 and chromosome 11 are, respectively, have allowed identification of transcribed sequences from these regions and has indicated that a hybrid transcript might be generated by the translocation. Here we use these fragments to screen human complementary DNA libraries to show that the translocation alters the open reading frame of an expressed gene on chromosome 22 gene by substituting a sequence encoding a putative RNA-binding domain for that of the DNA-binding domain of the human homologue of murine Fli-1.
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              Ewing Sarcoma: Current Management and Future Approaches Through Collaboration.

              Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive sarcoma of bone and soft tissue occurring at any age with a peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. The treatment of ES relies on a multidisciplinary approach, coupling risk-adapted intensive neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapies with surgery and/or radiotherapy for control of the primary site and possible metastatic disease. The optimization of ES multimodality therapeutic strategies has resulted from the efforts of several national and international groups in Europe and North America and from cooperation between pediatric and medical oncologists. Successive first-line trials addressed the efficacy of various cyclic combinations of drugs incorporating doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, etoposide, and dactinomycin and identified prognostic factors now used to tailor therapies. The role of high-dose chemotherapy is still debated. Current 5-year overall survival for patients with localized disease is 65% to 75%. Patients with metastases have a 5-year overall survival < 30%, except for those with isolated pulmonary metastasis (approximately 50%). Patients with recurrence have a dismal prognosis. The many insights into the biology of the EWS-FLI1 protein in the initiation and progression of ES remain to be translated into novel therapeutic strategies. Current options and future approaches will be discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                beat.schaefer@kispi.uzh.ch
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                30 January 2019
                30 January 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                ISNI 0000 0001 0726 4330, GRID grid.412341.1, Department of Oncology and Children’s Research Center, , University Children´s Hospital, ; Steinwiesstrasse 32, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland
                Article
                37264
                10.1038/s41598-018-37264-5
                6353870
                4fae5253-db45-4e1c-b443-506c29f418cc
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001711, Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur F&amp;#x00F6;rderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung (Swiss National Science Foundation);
                Award ID: 31003A-144177
                Award Recipient :
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