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      Serum Levels of Antibodies Against Oxidised LDL in Kidney Graft Recipients

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          Background/Aims: Lipid abnormalities present in the post-transplant period may contribute to the development and progression of complications leading to graft and patient loss. In the present study serum levels of antibodies against oxidised LDL (Ab-oxLDL) in kidney graft recipients were investigated along with their possible relation to the development of complications in the post-transplant period, and to the outcome of kidney transplantation. Methods: Serum levels of Ab-oxLDL and lipid pattern were evaluated in 92 kidney graft recipients before and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after kidney transplantation, as well as in 90 healthy blood donors (control group). Results: Kidney graft recipients had higher frequency of low levels of Ab-oxLDL as compared with the control group. A decrease in Ab-oxLDL levels was observed at 6 months post-transplant. Patients with early graft loss due to acute rejection had lower pre-transplant Ab-oxLDL levels (p < 0.05) as compared to patients with graft survival >3 months. Conclusions: It is suggested that decreased Ab-oxLDL levels found in kidney graft recipients may reflect impaired response to the products of lipid oxidation or increased consumption of Ab-oxLDL, and are associated with graft loss due to acute rejection.

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          Autoantibody against oxidised LDL and progression of carotid atherosclerosis

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            Alpha-tocopherol supplementation decreases the oxidative susceptibility of LDL in renal failure patients on dialysis therapy.

            Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) who have undergone dialysis treatment. The oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) appears to be a crucial step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The increased oxidative stress and attendant increased oxidizability of lipoproteins, such as LDL could contribute to the accelerated atherosclerosis in dialysis patients. Since alpha-tocopherol (AT) is the major antioxidant in LDL, the aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of RRR-AT supplementation (800 I.U. per day) for 12 weeks on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation. The study subjects comprised patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD), and age and sex matched controls (C). Plasma fatty acids, lipoproteins and AT levels were measured in these subjects before and after supplementation. Also, LDL AT and oxidizability was studied. LDL was isolated by ultracentrifugation at baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation, and subjected to a 5-h time course of copper catalyzed oxidation. Oxidation was measured by the formation of conjugated dienes (CD) and lipid peroxides (LP). Supplementation with AT did not alter the plasma lipid or lipoprotein profile of these subjects. Plasma lipid-standardized AT and LDL AT concentrations were not different among the groups at baseline. AT supplementation significantly increased plasma lipid-standardized AT (C=150%, HD=149%, PD=217%, P<0.001) and LDL AT concentrations (C=94%, HD=94%, PD=135%, P<0.003). AT enrichment of LDL resulted in a significant prolongation in conjugated diene lag phase in all groups (C=34%, HD=21%, PD=54%, P<0.02). Lipid peroxide lag phase was also increased significantly in C (27%,) and PD (40%) groups after AT supplementation (P<0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between plasma lipid standardized AT and lag phase (r=0. 54, P=0.0003). Overall, AT decreased the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in patients with chronic renal failure but the benefit appears to be greater in patients on PD. Therefore, AT supplementation may also provide a measure of protection against CAD in patients with chronic renal failure on dialysis therapy.
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              Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-induced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion, soluble cell adhesion molecules, and autoantibodies to oxidized-LDL in chronic renal failure patients on dialysis therapy.

              Premature atherosclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic renal failure patients undergoing dialysis. In this study, we compared autoantibodies to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OX-LDL), soluble cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and the effect of both LDL and OX-LDL on monocyte endothelial cell adhesion in chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis (HD, n = 16) and peritoneal dialysis (PD, n = 17) compared with matched healthy control subjects (C, n = 17). In addition, we studied the effect of supplementation with RRR-alpha-tocopherol (AT) 800 IU/d for 12 weeks on the above measures. LDL and OX-LDL induced adhesion of U937 cells to cultured endothelium, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin); autoantibodies to OX-LDL and markers of lipid peroxidation were determined before and after AT supplementation. Native LDL from PD patients induced greater monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion than LDL from C subjects (43.8% +/- 17.0% v25.3% +/- 17.7%, respectively, P = .0028). OX-LDL from chronic renal failure patients on both PD and HD stimulated greater adhesion than OX-LDL from the C subjects (68.0% +/- 18.5% and 57.6% +/- 15.1% v 40.9% +/- 17.3%, respectively, P < .01); OX-LDL from PD patients induced greater adhesion than that from HD patients (P < .01). Plasma methylglyoxal levels were significantly increased in both HD and PD groups, with higher levels in the HD group. Chronic renal failure patients on HD and PD also had higher levels of plasma sVCAM-1 and sE-selectin than C subjects (P < .01), indicating endothelial activation. Titers of autoantibodies to OX-LDL were not elevated in renal failure patients. Supplementation with AT 800 IU/d for 12 weeks, while resulting in significant enrichment with AT in LDL, did not have a significant effect on any of the parameters studied. This study makes the novel observation that the LDL of chronic renal failure patients on HD and PD appears to be potentially more atherogenic, since it induces greater monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                December 2002
                07 October 2002
                : 22
                : 5-6
                : 539-547
                Departments of aMedical Sciences, and bPublic Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, and cDepartment of Internal Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
                65293 Am J Nephrol 2002;22:539–547
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, References: 46, Pages: 9
                Self URI (application/pdf):
                Clinical Study

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Kidney transplantation, Lipid oxidation, Antibodies


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