Background/Aims: Lipid abnormalities present in the post-transplant period may contribute to the development and progression of complications leading to graft and patient loss. In the present study serum levels of antibodies against oxidised LDL (Ab-oxLDL) in kidney graft recipients were investigated along with their possible relation to the development of complications in the post-transplant period, and to the outcome of kidney transplantation. Methods: Serum levels of Ab-oxLDL and lipid pattern were evaluated in 92 kidney graft recipients before and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after kidney transplantation, as well as in 90 healthy blood donors (control group). Results: Kidney graft recipients had higher frequency of low levels of Ab-oxLDL as compared with the control group. A decrease in Ab-oxLDL levels was observed at 6 months post-transplant. Patients with early graft loss due to acute rejection had lower pre-transplant Ab-oxLDL levels (p < 0.05) as compared to patients with graft survival >3 months. Conclusions: It is suggested that decreased Ab-oxLDL levels found in kidney graft recipients may reflect impaired response to the products of lipid oxidation or increased consumption of Ab-oxLDL, and are associated with graft loss due to acute rejection.