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      Raltegravir: first in class HIV integrase inhibitor

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          Abstract

          On October 16, 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved raltegravir for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents in treatment-experienced adult patients who have evidence of viral replication and HIV-1 strains resistant to multiple antiretroviral agents. Raltegravir is first in a novel class of antiretroviral drugs known as integrase inhibitors. It has demonstrated potent anti HIV activity in both antiretroviral treatment-naïve and experienced patients. The most common adverse events reported with raltegravir during phase 2 and 3 clinical trials were diarrhea, nausea, and headache. Laboratory abnormalities include mild elevations in liver transaminases and creatine phosphokinase.

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          Safety and efficacy of the HIV-1 integrase inhibitor raltegravir (MK-0518) in treatment-experienced patients with multidrug-resistant virus: a phase II randomised controlled trial.

          Raltegravir (MK-0518) is an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor with potent in-vitro activity against HIV-1 strains including those resistant to currently available antiretroviral drugs. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of raltegravir when added to optimised background regimens in HIV-infected patients. HIV-infected patients with HIV-1 RNA viral load over 5000 copies per mL, CD4 cell counts over 50 cells per muL, and documented genotypic and phenotypic resistance to at least one nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and one protease inhibitor were randomly assigned to receive raltegravir (200 mg, 400 mg, or 600 mg) or placebo orally twice daily in this multicentre, triple-blind, dose-ranging, randomised study. The primary endpoints were change in viral load from baseline at week 24 and safety. Analyses were done on a modified intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, with the number NCT00105157. 179 patients were eligible for randomisation. 44 patients were randomly assigned to receive 200 mg raltegravir, 45 to receive 400 mg raltegravir, and 45 to receive 600 mg raltegravir; 45 patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo. One patient in the 200 mg group did not receive treatment and was therefore excluded from the analyses. For all groups, the median duration of previous antiretroviral therapy was 9.9 years (range 0.4-17.3 years) and the mean baseline viral load was 4.7 (SD 0.5) log10 copies per mL. Four patients discontinued due to adverse experiences, three (2%) of the 133 patients across all raltegravir groups and one (2%) of the 45 patients on placebo. 41 patients discontinued due to lack of efficacy: 14 (11%) of the 133 patients across all raltegravir groups and 27 (60%) of the 45 patients on placebo. At week 24, mean change in viral load from baseline was -1.80 (95% CI -2.10 to -1.50) log10 copies per mL in the 200 mg group, -1.87 (-2.16 to -1.58) log10 copies per mL in the 400 mg group, -1.84 (-2.10 to -1.58) log10 copies per mL in the 600 mg group, and -0.35 (-0.61 to -0.09) log(10) copies per mL for the placebo group. Raltegravir at all doses showed a safety profile much the same as placebo; there were no dose-related toxicities. In patients with few remaining treatment options, raltegravir at all doses studied provided better viral suppression than placebo when added to an optimised background regimen. The safety profile of raltegravir is comparable with that of placebo at all doses studied.
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            Rapid and durable antiretroviral effect of the HIV-1 Integrase inhibitor raltegravir as part of combination therapy in treatment-naive patients with HIV-1 infection: results of a 48-week controlled study.

            Raltegravir is an HIV-1 integrase strand-transfer inhibitor with potent in vitro activity. This study explored the antiretroviral activity and safety of raltegravir in treatment-naive patients with plasma HIV-1 RNA levels > or = 5000 copies/mL and CD4 T-cell counts > or = 100 cells/mm. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled study of raltegravir at doses of 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg twice daily versus efavirenz at a dose of 600 mg/d, all in combination with tenofovir at a dose of 300 mg/d and lamivudine at a dose of 300 mg/d (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00100048). In the 198 patients treated (160 on raltegravir and 38 on efavirenz), the mean HIV-1 RNA level ranged from 4.6 to 4.8 log10 copies/mL at baseline. At weeks 2, 4, and 8, the proportion of patients achieving an HIV-1 RNA level <50 copies/mL was greater in each of the raltegravir treatment groups than in the efavirenz group. By week 24, all treatment groups appeared similar, with plasma HIV-1 RNA levels <400 copies/mL in 85% to 98% of patients and <50 copies/mL in 85% to 95% of patients. These reductions were maintained through week 48 in 85% to 98% of patients and in 83% to 88% of patients, respectively. Five (3%) patients on raltegravir and 1 (3%) on efavirenz experienced virologic failure before week 48. Drug-related clinical adverse events were less common with raltegravir than with efavirenz. After 24 and 48 weeks of treatment, raltegravir did not result in increased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglycerides. Raltegravir at all doses studied was generally well tolerated in combination with tenofovir and lamivudine. Raltegravir exhibited potent and durable antiretroviral activity similar to that of efavirenz at 24 and 48 weeks but achieved HIV-1 RNA levels below detection at a more rapid rate.
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              HIV-1 integrase inhibitors that compete with the target DNA substrate define a unique strand transfer conformation for integrase.

              Diketo acids such as L-731,988 are potent inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase that inhibit integration and viral replication in cells. These compounds exhibit the unique ability to inhibit the strand transfer activity of integrase in the absence of an effect on 3' end processing. To understand the reasons for this distinct inhibitory profile, we developed a scintillation proximity assay that permits analysis of radiolabeled inhibitor binding and integrase function. High-affinity binding of L-731,988 is shown to require the assembly of a specific complex on the HIV-1 long terminal repeat. The interaction of L-731,988 with the complex and the efficacy of L-731, 988 in strand transfer can be abrogated by the interaction with target substrates, suggesting competition between the inhibitor and the target DNA. The L-731,988 binding site and that of the target substrate are thus distinct from that of the donor substrate and are defined by a conformation of integrase that is only adopted after assembly with the viral end. These results elucidate the basis for diketo acid inhibition of strand transfer and have implications for integrase-directed HIV-1 drug discovery efforts.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                April 2008
                April 2008
                : 4
                : 2
                : 493-500
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, USA
                [2 ]East Carolina University Greenville NC, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zelalem Temesgen Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Division of Infectious Diseases, 200 First St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA Tel +1 507 255 7762 Fax +1 507 255 7767 Email temesgen.zelalem@ 123456mayo.edu
                Article
                2504063
                18728839
                © 2008 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                integrase inhibitors, hiv, ralteravir, antiretroviral agents

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