15 September 2006
Background: Ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute renal failure (ARF) is associated with a high mortality in patients with hypertension and with an unfavorable outcome of kidney transplants from marginal donors. Aim: The influence of allopurinol and enalapril on urinary nitrate/nitrite (UNOx), glomerular filtration rate, plasma and urinary sodium, and hemodynamic parameters was examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with ARF. Methods: ARF was induced by right-kidney removal and clamping the left renal artery for 40 min in 50 male 26-week-old SHR weighing 300 ± 23 g. The rats were randomly allocated to five groups: (1) sham operated; (2) ARF; (3) ARF after pretreatment with 40 mg/kg allopurinol; (4) ARF after pretreatment with 40 mg/kg enalapril, and (5) ARF after pretreatment with 40 mg/kg allopurinol and 40 mg/kg enalapril. Creatinine clearance, UNOx (Griess reaction), cardiac output (dye dilution technique), mean arterial blood pressure, and renal blood flow were measured 24 h after reperfusion. Total vascular resistance and renal vascular resistance were calculated and compared between the groups. Results: A nonsignificant decrease was found in both daily UNOx excretion and creatinine clearance when pretreated ARF groups and the ARF group without pretreatment were compared (p > 0.05). Significantly lower plasma sodium values (139.5 ± 4.86 mmol/l) in the allopurinol-pretreated ARF group were found than in the ARF group without pretreatment, in the ARF group pretreated with enalapril, and in the sham SHR group (p = 0.029). The urinary sodium loss was greater in the enalapril-pretreated than in the allopurinol-pretreated ARF group (p = 0.047). Allopurinol and/or enalapril pretreatment decreased total vascular resistance (p = 0.003) in comparison with the sham SHR group. Conclusion: Neither allopurinol nor enalapril nor both were protective against ischemia-reperfusion injury in SHR, nor altered glomerular filtration rate and UNOx in a favorable direction.