6
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Drug forecast – the peptide deformylase inhibitors as antibacterial agents

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The relatively rapid development of microbial resistance after the entry of every new antimicrobial into the marketplace necessitates a constant supply of new agents to maintain effective pharmacotherapy. Despite extensive efforts to identify novel lead compounds from molecular targets, only the peptide deformylase inhibitors (PDIs) have shown any real promise, with some advancing to phase I human trials. Bacterial peptide deformylase, which catalyzes the removal of the N-formyl group from N-terminal methionine following translation, is essential for bacterial protein synthesis, growth, and survival. The majority of PDIs are pseudopeptide hydroxamic acids and two of these (IV BB-83698 and oral NVP LBM-415) entered phase I human trials. However, agents to the present have suffered from major potential liabilities. Their in vitro activity has been limited to gram-positive aerobes and some anaerobes and has been quite modest against the majority of such species (MIC 90 values ranging from 1–8 mg/L). They have exerted bacteriostatic, not bacteriocidal, activity, thus reducing their potential usefulness in the management of serious infections in the immunocompromised. The relative ease with which microorganisms have been able to develop resistance and the multiple available mechanisms of resistance (mutations in fmt, defB, folD genes; AcrAB/TolC efflux pump; overexpression of peptide deformylase) are worrisome. These could portend a short timespan of efficacy after marketing. Despite these current liabilities, further pursuit of more potent and broader spectrum PDIs which are less susceptible to bacterial mechanisms of resistance is still warranted.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 67

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Natural products--the future scaffolds for novel antibiotics?

          Natural products have played a pivotal role in antibiotic drug discovery with most antibacterial drugs being derived from a natural product or natural product lead. However, the rapid onset of resistance to most antibacterial drugs diminishes their effectiveness considerably and necessitates a constant supply of new antibiotics for effective treatment of infections. The natural product templates of actinonin, pleuromutilin, ramoplanin and tiacumicin B, which are compounds undergoing clinical evaluation, represent templates not found in currently marketed antibacterial drugs. In addition, the new templates present in the recently discovered lead antibacterials arylomycin, GE23077, mannopeptimycin, muraymycin/caprazamycin, nocathiacin and ECO-0501, are discussed. Despite extensive efforts to identify antibiotic leads from molecular targets, only the peptide deformylase inhibitor LBM-415 is currently in clinical trials. It is proposed that new antibacterial assays which combine cell-based screening with molecular targets could offer better prospects for lead discovery.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Reducing the fitness cost of antibiotic resistance by amplification of initiator tRNA genes.

            Deformylase inhibitors belong to a novel antibiotic class that targets peptide deformylase, a bacterial enzyme that removes the formyl group from N-terminal methionine in nascent polypeptides. Using the bacterium Salmonella enterica, we isolated mutants with resistance toward the peptide deformylase inhibitor actinonin. Resistance mutations were identified in two genes that are required for the formylation of methionyl (Met) initiator tRNA (tRNAi)(fMet): the fmt gene encoding the enzyme methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase and the folD gene encoding the bifunctional enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate-dehydrogenase and -cyclohydrolase. In the absence of antibiotic, these resistance mutations conferred a fitness cost that was manifested as a reduced growth rate in laboratory medium and in mice. By serially passaging the low-fitness mutants in growth medium without antibiotic, the fitness costs could be partly ameliorated either by intragenic mutations in the fmt/folD genes or by extragenic compensatory mutations. Of the extragenically compensated fmt mutants, approximately one-third carried amplifications of the identical, tandemly repeated metZ and metW genes, encoding tRNAi. The increase in metZW gene copy number varied from 5- to 40-fold and was accompanied by a similar increase in tRNAi levels. The rise in tRNAi level compensated for the lack of methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase activity and allowed translation initiation to proceed with nonformylated methionyl tRNAi. Amplified units varied in size from 1.9 to 94 kbp. Suppression of deleterious mutations by gene amplification may be involved in the evolution of new gene functions.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Actinonin, a naturally occurring antibacterial agent, is a potent deformylase inhibitor.

              Peptide deformylase (PDF) is essential in prokaryotes and absent in mammalian cells, thus making it an attractive target for the discovery of novel antibiotics. We have identified actinonin, a naturally occurring antibacterial agent, as a potent PDF inhibitor. The dissociation constant for this compound was 0.3 x 10(-)(9) M against Ni-PDF from Escherichia coli; the PDF from Staphylococcus aureus gave a similar value. Microbiological evaluation revealed that actinonin is a bacteriostatic agent with activity against Gram-positive and fastidious Gram-negative microorganisms. The PDF gene, def, was placed under control of P(BAD) in E. coli tolC, permitting regulation of PDF expression levels in the cell by varying the external arabinose concentration. The susceptibility of this strain to actinonin increases with decreased levels of PDF expression, indicating that actinonin inhibits bacterial growth by targeting this enzyme. Actinonin provides an excellent starting point from which to derive a more potent PDF inhibitor that has a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                August 2007
                August 2007
                : 3
                : 4
                : 513-525
                Affiliations
                College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota and Division of Geriatrics, HealthPartners Inc Minneapolis, MN, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: David R P Guay Department of Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, 308 Harvard Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA Tel +1 612 626 5981 Fax +1 612 625 3927 Email guayx001@ 123456umn.edu
                Article
                2374925
                18472972
                © 2007 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                lbm-415, actinonin, bb-83698, bb-3497, peptide deformylase, peptide deformylase inhibitors

                Comments

                Comment on this article