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      Calcium overload and cardiac function

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      Journal of Biomedical Science
      Springer Nature America, Inc

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          Bcl-2-family proteins and the role of mitochondria in apoptosis.

          Mitochondria are central to many forms of cell death, usually via the release of pro-apoptotic proteins from the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Some intermembrane space proteins, including cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO, and Omi/Htra2, can induce or enhance caspase activation, whereas others, such as AIF and endonuclease G, might act in a caspase-independent manner. Intermembrane space protein release is often regulated by Bcl-2-family proteins. Recent evidence suggests that pro-apoptotic members of this family, by themselves, can permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane without otherwise damaging mitochondria. Mitochondria can contribute to cell death in other ways. For example, they can respond to calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum by undergoing the mitochondrial permeability transition, which in turn causes outer membrane rupture and the release of intermembrane space proteins. Bcl-2-family proteins can influence the levels of releasable Ca(2+) in the endoplasmic reticulum, and thus determine whether the released Ca(2+) is sufficient to overload mitochondria and induce cell death.
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            Cellular mechanisms of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

            As of yet, only a few strategies to prevent myocardial reperfusion injury have been tested clinically. In the first minutes of reperfusion, the myocardium can be damaged by contracture development, causing mechanical stiffness, tissue necrosis, and the "stone heart" phenomenon. Reperfusion-induced contracture can have two different causes, namely, Ca2+overload-induced contracture or rigor-type contracture. Ca2+ contracture results from rapid re-energization of contractile cells with a persistent Ca2+ overload. Strategies to prevent this type of injury are directed at cytosolic Ca2+ control or myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity. Rigor-contracture occurs when re-energization proceeds very slowly. It does not depend on Ca2+ overload. It may be prevented by strategies improving early mitochondrial reactivation
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              Decoding calcium signals involved in cardiac growth and function.

              Calcium is central in the regulation of cardiac contractility, growth and gene expression. Variations in the amplitude, frequency and compartmentalization of calcium signals are decoded by calcium/calmodulin-dependent enzymes, ion channels and transcription factors. Understanding the circuitry for calcium signaling creates opportunities for pharmacological modification of cardiac function.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Biomedical Science
                J Biomed Sci
                Springer Nature America, Inc
                1021-7770
                1423-0127
                July 2004
                July 2004
                : 11
                : 5
                : 542-565
                Article
                10.1007/BF02256119
                15316129
                5017be87-e2db-4cf1-a755-62e6354b98a9
                © 2004
                History

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