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      A case of gait disturbance caused by low-dose gabapentin

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          Abstract

          Gabapentin, an anticonvulsant agent, is now often used for the treatment of neuropathic pain all over the world. It is unclear whether the combined use of gabapentin, sodium valproate, and flunitrazepam results in enhancement of the side effect, a gait disturbance. A 60-year-old man was taking oral sodium valproate for symptomatic epilepsy after a brain contusion and flunitrazepam to relieve insomnia. Oral gabapentin therapy was started for suspected neuropathic pain. Although the initial dose of oral gabapentin (200 mg) relieved the pain, the lower extremities became weak, resulting in a gait disturbance. The therapy was restarted with a halved dose, and this resolved the gait disturbance and relieved the pain.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Gabapentin for the symptomatic treatment of painful neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial.

          Pain is the most disturbing symptom of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. As many as 45% of patients with diabetes mellitus develop peripheral neuropathies. To evaluate the effect of gabapentin monotherapy on pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week trial conducted between July 1996 and March 1997. Outpatient clinics at 20 sites. The 165 patients enrolled had a 1- to 5-year history of pain attributed to diabetic neuropathy and a minimum 40-mm pain score on the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire visual analogue scale. Gabapentin (titrated from 900 to 3600 mg/d or maximum tolerated dosage) or placebo. The primary efficacy measure was daily pain severity as measured on an 11-point Likert scale (0, no pain; 10, worst possible pain). Secondary measures included sleep interference scores, the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire scores, Patient Global Impression of Change and Clinical Global Impression of Change, the Short Form-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire scores, and the Profile of Mood States results. Eighty-four patients received gabapentin and 70 (83%) completed the study; 81 received placebo and 65 (80%) completed the study. By intent-to-treat analysis, gabapentin-treated patients' mean daily pain score at the study end point (baseline, 6.4; end point, 3.9; n = 82) was significantly lower (P<.001) compared with the placebo-treated patients' end-point score (baseline, 6.5; end point, 5.1; n = 80). All secondary outcome measures of pain were significantly better in the gabapentin group than in the placebo group. Additional statistically significant differences favoring gabapentin treatment were observed in measures of quality of life (Short Form-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire and Profile of Mood States). Adverse events experienced significantly more frequently in the gabapentin group were dizziness (20 [24%] in the gabapentin group vs 4 [4.9%] in the control group; P<.001) and somnolence (19 [23%] in the gabapentin group vs 5 [6%] in the control group; P = .003). Confusion was also more frequent in the gabapentin group (7 [8%] vs 1 [1.2%]; P = .06). Gabapentin monotherapy appears to be efficacious for the treatment of pain and sleep interference associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy and exhibits positive effects on mood and quality of life.
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            Gabapentin for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized controlled trial.

            Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a syndrome of often intractable neuropathic pain following herpes zoster (shingles) that eludes effective treatment in many patients. To determine the efficacy and safety of the anticonvulsant drug gabapentin in reducing PHN pain. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design, 8-week trial conducted from August 1996 through July 1997. Sixteen US outpatient clinical centers. A total of 229 subjects were randomized. A 4-week titration period to a maximum dosage of 3600 mg/d of gabapentin or matching placebo. Treatment was maintained for another 4 weeks at the maximum tolerated dose. Concomitant tricyclic antidepressants and/or narcotics were continued if therapy was stabilized prior to study entry and remained constant throughout the study. The primary efficacy measure was change in the average daily pain score based on an 11-point Likert scale (0, no pain; 10, worst possible pain) from baseline week to the final week of therapy. Secondary measures included average daily sleep scores, Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Subject Global Impression of Change and investigator-rated Clinical Global Impression of Change, Short Form-36 (SF-36) Quality of Life Questionnaire, and Profile of Mood States (POMS). Safety measures included the frequency and severity of adverse events. One hundred thirteen patients received gabapentin, and 89 (78.8%) completed the study; 116 received placebo, and 95 (81.9%) completed the study. By intent-to-treat analysis, subjects receiving gabapentin had a statistically significant reduction in average daily pain score from 6.3 to 4.2 points compared with a change from 6.5 to 6.0 points in subjects randomized to receive placebo (P<.001). Secondary measures of pain as well as changes in pain and sleep interference showed improvement with gabapentin (P<.001). Many measures within the SF-36 and POMS also significantly favored gabapentin (P< or =.01). Somnolence, dizziness, ataxia, peripheral edema, and infection were all more frequent in the gabapentin group, but withdrawals were comparable in the 2 groups (15 [13.3%] in the gabapentin group vs 11 [9.5%] in the placebo group). Gabapentin is effective in the treatment of pain and sleep interference associated with PHN. Mood and quality of life also improve with gabapentin therapy.
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              Gabapentin for chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults.

               R Moore (corresponding) ,  Philip J Wiffen,  Sheena Derry (2014)
              This review is an update of a review published in 2011, itself a major update of previous reviews published in 2005 and 2000, investigating the effects of gabapentin in chronic neuropathic pain (pain due to nerve damage). Antiepileptic drugs are used to manage chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2016
                09 June 2016
                : 12
                : 927-929
                Affiliations
                Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hirotsugu Kanda, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Midorigaoka-higashi 2-1-1-1, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510, Japan, Tel +81 166 68 2583, Fax +81 166 68 2589, Email h.kanda0629@ 123456nifty.com
                Article
                tcrm-12-927
                10.2147/TCRM.S107350
                4907739
                27354808
                © 2016 Kanao-Kanda et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Case Report

                Medicine

                neuropathic pain, side effect, gait disturbance, gabapentin

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