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      Buwchfawromyces eastonii gen. nov., sp. nov.: a new anaerobic fungus (Neocallimastigomycota) isolated from buffalo faeces

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          Abstract

          The novel anaerobic fungus Buwchfawromyces eastonii gen. nov., sp. nov., belonging to order Neocallimastigales (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) is described. Morphologically similar to Piromyces but genetically quite distinct, this fungus (isolate GE09) was first isolated from buffalo faeces in west Wales and then subsequently isolated from sheep, cattle and horse in the same area. Phylogenetic analysis of LSU and ITS sequence confirmed that B. eastonii isolates formed a distinct clade close to the polycentric Anaeromyces spp. The morphology of GE09 is monocentric with monoflagellate zoospores. However, the sporangial stalk (sporangiophore) is often distinctly swollen and the proximal regions of the rhizoidal system twisted in appearance.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Finding needles in haystacks: linking scientific names, reference specimens and molecular data for Fungi

          DNA phylogenetic comparisons have shown that morphology-based species recognition often underestimates fungal diversity. Therefore, the need for accurate DNA sequence data, tied to both correct taxonomic names and clearly annotated specimen data, has never been greater. Furthermore, the growing number of molecular ecology and microbiome projects using high-throughput sequencing require fast and effective methods for en masse species assignments. In this article, we focus on selecting and re-annotating a set of marker reference sequences that represent each currently accepted order of Fungi. The particular focus is on sequences from the internal transcribed spacer region in the nuclear ribosomal cistron, derived from type specimens and/or ex-type cultures. Re-annotated and verified sequences were deposited in a curated public database at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), namely the RefSeq Targeted Loci (RTL) database, and will be visible during routine sequence similarity searches with NR_prefixed accession numbers. A set of standards and protocols is proposed to improve the data quality of new sequences, and we suggest how type and other reference sequences can be used to improve identification of Fungi. Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/PRJNA177353
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            Anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota): advances in understanding their taxonomy, life cycle, ecology, role and biotechnological potential.

            Anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammalian herbivores, where they play an important role in the degradation of plant material. The Neocallimastigomycota represent the earliest diverging lineage of the zoosporic fungi; however, understanding of the relationships of the different taxa (both genera and species) within this phylum is in need of revision. Issues exist with the current approaches used for their identification and classification, and recent evidence suggests the presence of several novel taxa (potential candidate genera) that remain to be characterised. The life cycle and role of anaerobic fungi has been well characterised in the rumen, but not elsewhere in the ruminant alimentary tract. Greater understanding of the 'resistant' phase(s) of their life cycle is needed, as is study of their role and significance in other herbivores. Biotechnological application of anaerobic fungi, and their highly active cellulolytic and hemi-cellulolytic enzymes, has been a rapidly increasing area of research and development in the last decade. The move towards understanding of anaerobic fungi using -omics based (genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic) approaches is starting to yield valuable insights into the unique cellular processes, evolutionary history, metabolic capabilities and adaptations that exist within the Neocallimastigomycota.
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              Phylogenetic diversity and community structure of anaerobic gut fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) in ruminant and non-ruminant herbivores.

              The phylogenetic diversity and community structure of members of the gut anaerobic fungi (AF) (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) were investigated in 30 different herbivore species that belong to 10 different mammalian and reptilian families using the internal transcribed spacer region-1 (ITS-1) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) region as a phylogenetic marker. A total of 267 287 sequences representing all known anaerobic fungal genera were obtained in this study. Sequences affiliated with the genus Piromyces were the most abundant, being encountered in 28 different samples, and representing 36% of the sequences obtained. On the other hand, sequences affiliated with the genera Cyllamyces and Orpinomyces were the least abundant, being encountered in 2, and 8 samples, and representing 0.7%, and 1.1% of the total sequences obtained, respectively. Further, 38.3% of the sequences obtained did not cluster with previously identified genera and formed eight phylogenetically distinct novel anaerobic fungal lineages. Some of these novel lineages were widely distributed (for example NG1 and NG3), whereas others were animal specific, being encountered in only one or two animals (for example NG4, NG6, NG7, and NG8). The impact of various physiological and environmental factors on the diversity and community structure of AF was examined. The results suggest that animal host phylogeny exerts the most significant role on shaping anaerobic fungal diversity and community composition. These results greatly expand the documented global phylogenetic diversity of members of this poorly studied group of fungi that has an important function in initiating plant fiber degradation during fermentative digestion in ruminant and non-ruminant herbivores.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                MycoKeys
                MC
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-4049
                1314-4057
                March 04 2015
                March 04 2015
                : 9
                : 11-28
                Article
                10.3897/mycokeys.9.9032
                © 2015
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