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Skyrmion-Electronics: An Overview and Outlook

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      Topological Insulators

       ,   (2011)
      Topological insulators are electronic materials that have a bulk band gap like an ordinary insulator, but have protected conducting states on their edge or surface. The 2D topological insulator is a quantum spin Hall insulator, which is a close cousin of the integer quantum Hall state. A 3D topological insulator supports novel spin polarized 2D Dirac fermions on its surface. In this Colloquium article we will review the theoretical foundation for these electronic states and describe recent experiments in which their signatures have been observed. We will describe transport experiments on HgCdTe quantum wells that demonstrate the existence of the edge states predicted for the quantum spin Hall insulator. We will then discuss experiments on Bi_{1-x}Sb_x, Bi_2 Se_3, Bi_2 Te_3 and Sb_2 Te_3 that establish these materials as 3D topological insulators and directly probe the topology of their surface states. We will then describe exotic states that can occur at the surface of a 3D topological insulator due to an induced energy gap. A magnetic gap leads to a novel quantum Hall state that gives rise to a topological magnetoelectric effect. A superconducting energy gap leads to a state that supports Majorana fermions, and may provide a new venue for realizing proposals for topological quantum computation. We will close by discussing prospects for observing these exotic states, a well as other potential device applications of topological insulators.
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        Topological insulators and superconductors

        Topological insulators are new states of quantum matter which can not be adiabatically connected to conventional insulators and semiconductors. They are characterized by a full insulating gap in the bulk and gapless edge or surface states which are protected by time-reversal symmetry. These topological materials have been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed in a variety of systems, including HgTe quantum wells, BiSb alloys, and Bi\(_2\)Te\(_3\) and Bi\(_2\)Se\(_3\) crystals. We review theoretical models, materials properties and experimental results on two-dimensional and three-dimensional topological insulators, and discuss both the topological band theory and the topological field theory. Topological superconductors have a full pairing gap in the bulk and gapless surface states consisting of Majorana fermions. We review the theory of topological superconductors in close analogy to the theory of topological insulators.
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          Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future.

          This review describes a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron. Either adding the spin degree of freedom to conventional charge-based electronic devices or using the spin alone has the potential advantages of nonvolatility, increased data processing speed, decreased electric power consumption, and increased integration densities compared with conventional semiconductor devices. To successfully incorporate spins into existing semiconductor technology, one has to resolve technical issues such as efficient injection, transport, control and manipulation, and detection of spin polarization as well as spin-polarized currents. Recent advances in new materials engineering hold the promise of realizing spintronic devices in the near future. We review the current state of the spin-based devices, efforts in new materials fabrication, issues in spin transport, and optical spin manipulation.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Proceedings of the IEEE
            Proc. IEEE
            Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
            0018-9219
            1558-2256
            October 2016
            October 2016
            : 104
            : 10
            : 2040-2061
            10.1109/JPROC.2016.2591578
            © 2016
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