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      Redescription and molecular analysis of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) johnii Yamaguti, 1939 (Acanthocephala, Neoechinorhynchidae) from the Pacific Ocean off Vietnam Translated title: Redescription et analyse moléculaire de Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) johnii Yamaguti, 1939 (Acanthocephala, Neoechinorhynchidae) de l’océan Pacifique au large du Viêt Nam

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          Abstract

          Neoechinorhynchus ( Neoechinorhynchus) johnii Yamaguti, 1939 is redescribed from Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Polynemidae), Johnius carouna (Sciaenidae), Johnius sp., and Otolithes ruber (Sciaenidae) along the north and south coasts of Vietnam. Our description completes missing and inadequate information in the original descriptions and line drawings from Johnius goma in Japan and from Pseudosciaena diacanthus in the Indian Ocean. We add new information documented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photomicroscopy, and explore the wide morphological diversity attributed to host species. The redescription includes: worms cylindrical with round proboscis with prominent apical organ, and large anterior hooks distant from small middle and posterior hooks; neck longer than the proboscis, nucleated lemnisci subequal, and receptacle with large basal triangulate cephalic ganglion and attached para-receptacle structure (PRS); male reproductive system in posterior half of trunk; adult females with introvert genital vestibule; and eggs spherical or rectangular. Gallium cuts and X-ray scans of hooks show high concentrations of sulfur on edge layer aiding in forming hardened calcium phosphate apatite of that layer with calcium and phosphorus in higher concentration in central part of hook. Molecular results consistently yielded a strongly supported distinct clade for the Neoechinorhynchus species from Vietnam for both 18S gene and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of ribosomal RNA. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that N. johnii occupies a separate position in the trees, probably indicating an Asian origin of this species.

          Translated abstract

          Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) johnii Yamaguti, 1939 est redécrit de Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Polynemidae), Johnius carouna (Sciaenidae), Johnius sp. et Otolithes ruber (Sciaenidae) des côtes nord et sud du Viêt Nam. Notre description complète les informations manquantes et inadéquates dans les descriptions originales et les dessins au trait de spécimens de Johnius goma au Japon et de Pseudosciaena diacanthus de l’océan Indien. Nous ajoutons de nouvelles informations par microscopie électronique à balayage et photomicroscopie, et explorons la grande diversité morphologique attribuée aux espèces hôtes. La nouvelle description comprend : vers cylindriques à trompe arrondie avec un organe apical proéminent et de grands crochets antérieurs éloignés des petits crochets médians et postérieurs ; cou plus long que le proboscis, lemnisques nucléés subégaux, et réceptacle avec un grand ganglion céphalique triangulaire basal et une structure de para-réceptacle attachée ; système reproducteur mâle dans la moitié postérieure du tronc ; femelles adultes avec vestibule génital introverti ; oeufs sphériques ou rectangulaires. Les coupes au gallium et les analyses aux rayons X des crochets montrent de fortes concentrations de soufre sur la couche marginale, contribuant à la formation d’apatite de phosphate de calcium durci de cette couche, avec une concentration plus élevée de calcium et de phosphore dans la partie centrale du crochet. Les résultats moléculaires pour le gène 18S et les régions ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 de l’ARN ribosomal ont régulièrement montré un clade distinct et fortement soutenu pour les espèces de Neoechinorhynchus du Viêt Nam. L’analyse phylogénétique a démontré que N. johnii occupe une position distincte dans les arbres, indiquant probablement une origine asiatique de cette espèce.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Precision Farming: Technologies and Information as Risk-Reduction Tools

           Franklin Hall (1999)
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            TOPALi v2: a rich graphical interface for evolutionary analyses of multiple alignments on HPC clusters and multi-core desktops

            Summary: TOPALi v2 simplifies and automates the use of several methods for the evolutionary analysis of multiple sequence alignments. Jobs are submitted from a Java graphical user interface as TOPALi web services to either run remotely on high-performance computing clusters or locally (with multiple cores supported). Methods available include model selection and phylogenetic tree estimation using the Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood (ML) approaches, in addition to recombination detection methods. The optimal substitution model can be selected for protein or nucleic acid (standard, or protein-coding using a codon position model) data using accurate statistical criteria derived from ML co-estimation of the tree and the substitution model. Phylogenetic software available includes PhyML, RAxML and MrBayes. Availability: Freely downloadable from http://www.topali.org for Windows, Mac OS X, Linux and Solaris. Contact: iain.milne@scri.ac.uk
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              Classification of the acanthocephala.

               O Amin (2013)
              In 1985, Amin presented a new system for the classification of the Acanthocephala in Crompton and Nickol's (1985) book 'Biology of the Acanthocephala' and recognized the concepts of Meyer (1931, 1932, 1933) and Van Cleave (1936, 1941, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1952). This system became the standard for the taxonomy of this group and remains so to date. Many changes have taken place and many new genera and species, as well as higher taxa, have been described since. An updated version of the 1985 scheme incorporating new concepts in molecular taxonomy, gene sequencing and phylogenetic studies is presented. The hierarchy has undergone a total face lift with Amin's (1987) addition of a new class, Polyacanthocephala (and a new order and family) to remove inconsistencies in the class Palaeacanthocephala. Amin and Ha (2008) added a third order (and a new family) to the Palaeacanthocephala, Heteramorphida, which combines features from the palaeacanthocephalan families Polymorphidae and Heteracanthocephalidae. Other families and subfamilies have been added but some have been eliminated, e.g. the three subfamilies of Arythmacanthidae: Arhythmacanthinae Yamaguti, 1935; Neoacanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1960; and Paracanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1969. Amin (1985) listed 22 families, 122 genera and 903 species (4, 4 and 14 families; 13, 28 and 81 genera; 167, 167 and 569 species in Archiacanthocephala, Eoacanthocephala and Palaeacanthocephala, respectively). The number of taxa listed in the present treatment is 26 families (18% increase), 157 genera (29%), and 1298 species (44%) (4, 4 and 16; 18, 29 and 106; 189, 255 and 845, in the same order), which also includes 1 family, 1 genus and 4 species in the class Polyacanthocephala Amin, 1987, and 3 genera and 5 species in the fossil family Zhijinitidae.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2019
                23 July 2019
                : 26
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2019/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Parasitic Diseases 11445 E. Via Linda 2-419 Scottsdale AZ 85259 USA
                [2 ] Molecular Taxonomy Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Chaudhary Charan Singh University Meerut Uttar Pradesh 250004 India
                [3 ] Department of Biology, Brigham Young University 1114 MLBM Provo UT 84602 USA
                [4 ] Department of Parasitology, Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR), Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Cau Giay Hanoi Vietnam
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: omaramin@ 123456aol.com
                Article
                parasite190035 10.1051/parasite/2019041
                10.1051/parasite/2019041
                6650202
                31335314
                © O.M. Amin et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2019

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 40, Pages: 16
                Categories
                Research Article

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