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      Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes): lower species richness compared to European mainland Translated title: Acariens plumicoles (Acari, Astigmata) de passereaux (Aves, Passeriformes) des Açores : richesse en espèces inférieure à celle du continent européen

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          Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic) during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae). A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species ( Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria) presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai.

          Translated abstract

          Dix espèces de passereaux ont été examinées sur trois îles des Açores (Atlantique Nord) en 2013 et 2014 afin d’identifier leurs assemblages d’acariens plumicoles. Nous avons trouvé 19 espèces d’acariens plumicoles appartenant à quatre familles de la superfamille Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae et Trouessartiidae). Une prévalence élevée d’espèces d’acariens plumicoles a été trouvée sur la majorité des espèces hôtes examinés. Seules trois espèces de passereaux ( Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus et Serinus canaria) présentaient le même complexe complet d’espèces d’acariens qui existe généralement en Europe continentale dans le plumage de leurs parents les plus proches. Passer domesticus présentait la même faune limitée d’acariens plumicoles vivant dans le plumage que ses conspécifiques en Europe continentale. Carduelis carduelis hébergeait les mêmes espèces d’acariens plumicoles que la plupart de ses populations continentales en Europe, mais n’avait pas une espèce d’acarien qui vit sur cet hôte en Égypte. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina et Fringilla coelebs n’hébergeaient pas plusieurs espèces d’acariens communes à leurs parents continentaux. Cette diminution pourrait s’expliquer par l’effet fondateur, dans lequel un nombre restreint d’individus colonisateurs ne transportent pas l’ensemble des espèces de leurs acariens plumicoles, ou par l’extinction de certaines espèces d’acariens après avoir atteint les Açores. Le seul individu de Motacilla cinerea échantillonné dans cette étude a présenté une nouvelle mention d’hôte pour l’espèce d’acarien Trouessartia jedliczkai.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Introduced species and their missing parasites.

          Damage caused by introduced species results from the high population densities and large body sizes that they attain in their new location. Escape from the effects of natural enemies is a frequent explanation given for the success of introduced species. Because some parasites can reduce host density and decrease body size, an invader that leaves parasites behind and encounters few new parasites can experience a demographic release and become a pest. To test whether introduced species are less parasitized, we have compared the parasites of exotic species in their native and introduced ranges, using 26 host species of molluscs, crustaceans, fishes, birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles. Here we report that the number of parasite species found in native populations is twice that found in exotic populations. In addition, introduced populations are less heavily parasitized (in terms of percentage infected) than are native populations. Reduced parasitization of introduced species has several causes, including reduced probability of the introduction of parasites with exotic species (or early extinction after host establishment), absence of other required hosts in the new location, and the host-specific limitations of native parasites adapting to new hosts.
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            Parasites lost - do invaders miss the boat or drown on arrival?

            Host species that colonize new regions often lose parasite species. Using population arrival and establishment data for New Zealand's introduced bird species and their ectoparasitic chewing lice species, we test the relative importance of different processes and mechanisms in causing parasite species loss. Few lice failed to arrive in New Zealand with their hosts due to being missed by chance in the sample of hosts from the original population (missing the boat). Rather, most lice were absent because their hosts or the parasite themselves failed to establish populations in their new environment. Given they arrived and their host established, parasite persistence was more strongly related to factors associated with transmission efficiency (number of host individuals introduced, host body size, host sociality and parasite suborder) than parasite propagule pressure and aggregation. Such insights into parasite success are invaluable to both understanding and managing their impact.
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              Mites and birds: diversity, parasitism and coevolution

              Ectoparasites play important roles in the lives of birds. Among these parasites, mites offer unique potential because of their extraordinary ecological and evolutionary diversity. However, the basic biology of most mites is poorly understood, and misleading extrapolations are sometimes made from better studied systems involving lice and fleas. Most importantly, not all bird-associated mites are parasitic; indeed, recent research suggests that some might even be beneficial. Here, we summarize what is known about the diversity of bird-mite relationships, and highlight how mites provide an ideal tool for the study of host life histories, sexual selection, immunocompetence and cospeciation.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                11 February 2015
                : 22
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2015/01 )
                [1 ] CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, InBIO Laboratório Associado, Pólo dos Açores, Universidade dos Açores 9501-801 Ponta Delgada Portugal
                [2 ] Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences 199034 Saint Petersburg Russia
                [3 ] Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, Department of Biology and Wildlife Diseases, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno Palackeho 1-3 61242 Brno Czech Republic
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: pedroreisrodrigues@ 123456yahoo.com
                parasite140123 10.1051/parasite/2015009
                © P. Rodrigues et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 52, Pages: 7
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