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Case–control, kin-cohort and meta-analyses provide no support for STK15 F31I as a low penetrance colorectal cancer allele

1 , 1 , 1 , *

British Journal of Cancer

STK15, polymorphism, colorectal cancer, risk

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      Abstract

      Recently, homozygosity for T91A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the serine/threonine kinase (STK15) gene, which generates the substitution F31I has been proposed to increase the risk of a number of tumours including colorectal cancer (CRC). To further evaluate the relationship between STK15 F31I and risk of CRC, we genotyped 2558 CRC cases and 2680 controls for this polymorphism. We found no evidence that homozygosity for the STK15 31I genotype confers an increased risk of CRC (odds ratio=0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74–1.24). We also conducted a kin-cohort analysis to assess risk among first-degree relatives of the CRC cases. The hazard ratio for I/I homozygotes compared to F/F homozygotes was 1.65 (95% CI: 0.39–3.17). A meta-analysis of our case–control data and three previous studies also provided no evidence of an elevated risk of CRC associated with homozygosity. These data provide no support for the hypothesis that sequence variation in STK15 defined by SNP F31I per se confers an elevated risk of CRC.

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      Most cited references 13

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      This paper examines eight published reviews each reporting results from several related trials. Each review pools the results from the relevant trials in order to evaluate the efficacy of a certain treatment for a specified medical condition. These reviews lack consistent assessment of homogeneity of treatment effect before pooling. We discuss a random effects approach to combining evidence from a series of experiments comparing two treatments. This approach incorporates the heterogeneity of effects in the analysis of the overall treatment efficacy. The model can be extended to include relevant covariates which would reduce the heterogeneity and allow for more specific therapeutic recommendations. We suggest a simple noniterative procedure for characterizing the distribution of treatment effects in a series of studies.
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        A homologue of Drosophila aurora kinase is oncogenic and amplified in human colorectal cancers.

         Y. Zhu,  B Schryver,  K Mossie (1998)
        Genetic and biochemical studies in lower eukaryotes have identified several proteins that ensure accurate segregation of chromosomes. These include the Drosophila aurora and yeast Ipl1 kinases that are required for centrosome maturation and chromosome segregation. We have identified two human homologues of these genes, termed aurora1 and aurora2, that encode cell-cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinases. Here we demonstrate that the aurora2 gene maps to chromosome 20q13, a region amplified in a variety of human cancers, including a significant number of colorectal malignancies. We propose that aurora2 may be a target of this amplicon since its DNA is amplified and its RNA overexpressed, in more than 50% of primary colorectal cancers. Furthermore, overexpression of aurora2 transforms rodent fibroblasts. These observations implicate aurora2 as a potential oncogene in many colon, breast and other solid tumors, and identify centrosome-associated proteins as novel targets for cancer therapy.
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          Tumour amplified kinase STK15/BTAK induces centrosome amplification, aneuploidy and transformation.

          The centrosomes are thought to maintain genomic stability through the establishment of bipolar spindles during cell division, ensuring equal segregation of replicated chromosomes to two daughter cells. Deregulated duplication and distribution of centrosomes have been implicated in chromosome segregation abnormalities, leading to aneuploidy seen in many cancer cell types. Here, we report that STK15 (also known as BTAK and aurora2), encoding a centrosome-associated kinase, is amplified and overexpressed in multiple human tumour cell types, and is involved in the induction of centrosome duplication-distribution abnormalities and aneuploidy in mammalian cells. STK15 amplification has been previously detected in breast tumour cell lines and in colon tumours; here, we report its amplification in approximately 12% of primary breast tumours, as well as in breast, ovarian, colon, prostate, neuroblastoma and cervical cancer cell lines. Additionally, high expression of STK15 mRNA was detected in tumour cell lines without evidence of gene amplification. Ectopic expression of STK15 in mouse NIH 3T3 cells led to the appearance of abnormal centrosome number (amplification) and transformation in vitro. Finally, overexpression of STK15 in near diploid human breast epithelial cells revealed similar centrosome abnormality, as well as induction of aneuploidy. These findings suggest that STK15 is a critical kinase-encoding gene, whose overexpression leads to centrosome amplification, chromosomal instability and transformation in mammalian cells.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]simpleSection of Cancer Genetics, Institute of Cancer Research , Surrey, UK
            Author notes
            [* ]Author for correspondence: Richard.Houlston@ 123456icr.ac.uk
            Journal
            Br J Cancer
            British Journal of Cancer
            0007-0920
            1532-1827
            17 October 2006
            23 October 2006
            : 95
            : 8
            : 1047-1049
            2360710
            6603382
            10.1038/sj.bjc.6603382
            17003782
            Copyright 2006, Cancer Research UK
            Categories
            Molecular Diagnostics

            Oncology & Radiotherapy

            colorectal cancer, stk15, risk, polymorphism

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