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      Examining the Energy Performance Associated With Typical Pipe Unit Head Loss Thresholds

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          Abstract

          The energy performance of water mains is rarely used as a criterion for pipe rehabilitation decisions, yet there is a need to identify the worst‐performing pipes to target investment wisely. This study links pipe characteristics with energy performance to understand how traditional pipe replacement thresholds perform in terms of energy. A cross‐correlation analysis between pipe characteristics and pipe energy performance metrics, using a benchmarking data set of more than 20,000 water mains from 17 distribution systems, showed that unit head loss is closely related to net energy efficiency and the energy lost to friction (ELTF) in pipes, along with flow. Under average flow conditions, 3.2% of the pipes exceeded 3 m/km (ft/1,000 ft) of unit head loss, with 1.1% exceeding the more stringent 10 m/km threshold. Over 90% of pipes have a unit head loss below 1 m/km, which corresponds to an ELTF of 1.9%.

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          Author and article information

          Contributors
          Journal
          10.1002/(ISSN)1551-8833
          Journal ‐ American Water Works Association
          J Am Water Works Assoc
          John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (Hoboken, USA )
          0003-150X
          1551-8833
          23 July 2018
          Affiliations
          Toronto; Ont. CA Buildings, Infrastructure and Advanced Facilities (BIAF), Jacobs Engineering
          Kingston; Ont. CA Civil Engineering Department, Queen's University
          Sheffield; GB Civil Engineering Department, University of Sheffield
          10.1002/awwa.1089
          © 2018 The Authors. Journal ‐ American Water Works Association published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Water Works Association

          This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

          Funding
          Funded by: Natural Science and Engineering Research Council
          Funded by: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
          Award ID: EP/I029346/1

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