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      Bucephalidae (Digenea) from epinephelines (Serranidae: Perciformes) from the waters off New Caledonia, including Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp. Translated title: Bucephalidae (Digenea) d’Epinephelinae (Serranidae: Perciformes) en Nouvelle-Calédonie, y compris Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp.

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      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Bucephalidae, Neidhartia, Prosorhynchus, Epinephelus, Cephalopholis, Variola, New Caledonia

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          Abstract

          Many bucephalid species, mainly of the subfamily Prosorhynchinae, have been described from epinepheline serranids (groupers) throughout the World’s Oceans. In this paper eight named prosorhynchine species are described and/or illustrated from epinepheline fishes from New Caledonia. Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp. in Epinephelus chlorostigma differs from other Neidhartia spp. in various combinations of distinct body-size, rhynchus size, previtelline and pre-mouth distance, post-testicular distance, cirrus-sac reach and egg-size. Other species are: Neidhartia haywardi Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus; Neidhartia tyleri Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus freitasi Nagaty, 1937 in Plectropomus leopardus and Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus robertsthomsoni Bott & Cribb, 2009 in Cephalopholis argus; Prosorhynchus longisaccatus Durio & Manter, 1968 in Cephalopholis urodeta, Epinephelus areolatus, Epinephelus cyanopodus and Epinephelus maculatus. Prosorhynchus luzonicus Velasquez, 1959 and Prosorhynchus sp. B. in Epinephelus coioides; Prosorhynchus serrani Durio & Manter, 1968 in Variola albimarginata and Variola louti; Prosorhynchus sp. A in Epinephelus morrhua; Prosorhynchus sp. immature in Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus. The new combination Neidhartia longivesicula (Bilqees, Khalil, Khan, Perveen & Muti-ur-Rehman, 2009) (Syn. Prosorhynchus longivesicula) is formed. Evidence from this paper and earlier molecular studies indicates that there are numerous morphologically similar prosorhynchine species in serranids, most of which show a high degree of host-specificity.

          Translated abstract

          De nombreuses espèces de Bucephalidae, principalement de la sous-famille Prosorhynchinae, ont été décrites de Serranidae Epinephelinae (mérous) à travers les océans du monde. Dans cet article, huit espèces nommées de Prosorhynchinae sont décrites et / ou illustrées d’Epinephelinae de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Neidhartia lochepintade n. sp., parasite d’ Epinephelus chlorostigma, diffère des autres espèces de Neidhartia par des combinaisons variées de taille du corps, taille du rhynchus, distance pré-vitelline et pré-bouche, distance post-testiculaire, étendue du sac du cirre et taille des œufs. Les autres espèces sont : Neidhartia haywardi Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 chez Plectropomus leopardus; Neidhartia tyleri Bott, Miller & Cribb, 2013 chez Plectropomus leopardus et Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus freitasi Nagaty, 1937 chez Plectropomus leopardus et Plectropomus laevis; Prosorhynchus robertsthomsoni Bott & Cribb, 2009 chez Cephalopholis argus; Prosorhynchus longisaccatus Durio & Manter, 1968 chez Cephalopholis urodeta, Epinephelus areolatus, Epinephelus cyanopodus et Epinephelus maculatus; Prosorhynchus luzonicus Velasquez, 1959 et Prosorhynchus sp. B. chez Epinephelus coioides; Prosorhynchus serrani Durio & Manter, 1968 chez Variola albimarginata et Variola louti; Prosorhynchus sp. A chez Epinephelus morrhua; Prosorhynchus sp. immature chez Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus. La nouvelle combinaison Neidhartia longivesicula (Bilqees, Khalil, Khan, Perveen & Muti-ur-Rehman, 2009) (Syn. Prosorhynchus longivesicula) est formée. Cet article et des études moléculaires antérieures indiquent qu’il existe de nombreuses espèces de Prosorhynchinae morphologiquement semblables chez les Serranidae, dont la plupart présentent un haut degré de spécificité à l’hôte.

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          An annotated list of parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish.

          Abstract: Over a 7-year period, parasites have been collected from 28 species of groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in the waters off New Caledonia. Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 337 host-parasite combinations, including 146 parasite identifications at the species level. Results are included for isopods (5 species), copepods (19), monogeneans (56), digeneans (28), cestodes (12), and nematodes (12). When results are restricted to those 14 fish species for which more than five specimens were examined and to parasites identified at the species level, 109 host-parasite combinations were recorded, with 63 different species, of which monogeneans account for half (32 species), and an average of 4.5 parasite species per fish species. Digenean records were compared for 16 fish species shared with the study of Cribb et al. (2002); based on a total of 90 parasite records identified at the species level, New Caledonia has 17 new records and only seven species were already known from other locations. We hypothesize that the present results represent only a small part of the actual biodiversity, and we predict a biodiversity of 10 different parasite species and 30 host-parasite combinations per serranid. A comparison with a study on Heron Island (Queensland, Australia) by Lester and Sewell (1989) was attempted: of the four species of fish in common and in a total of 91 host-parasite combinations, only six parasites identified at the species level were shared. This suggests strongly that insufficient sampling impairs proper biogeographical or ecological comparisons. Probably only 3% of the parasite species of coral reef fish are already known in New Caledonia.
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            Transmission of fish parasites into grouper mariculture (Serranidae: Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822)) in Lampung Bay, Indonesia.

            Differently fed groupers Epinephelus coioides from an Indonesian finfish mariculture farm were studied for ecto- and endohelminth parasites. Pellet-fed E. coioides were infested with 13 parasite species/taxa of which six had a monoxenous and seven a heteroxenous life cycle. A total of 14 parasite species/taxa were found in the fish that were fed with different trash fish species, four of them with a monoxenous and ten with a heteroxenous life cycle. The use of pellet food significantly reduced the transfer of endohelminths and the number of parasites with a heteroxenous life cycle. Out of ten studied trash fish species, 62 parasite species were isolated (39% ectoparasitic and 61% endoparasitic), four of them also occurring in the cultured E. coioides and 14 in different groupers from Balai Budidaya Laut Lampung. The trash fish is held responsible for the transmission of these parasites into the mariculture fish. Endohelminth infestation of pellet fed fish demonstrates that parasite transfer also occurs via organisms that naturally live in, on, and in the surroundings of the net cages. Seventeen recorded invertebrates from the net cages might play an important role as intermediate hosts and hence parasite transmitters. The risk of parasite transfer can be considerably reduced by feeding selected trash fish species with a lower parasite burden, using only trash fish musculature or minimizing the abundance of invertebrates (fouling) on the net cages. These methods can control the endoparasite burden of cultivated fish without medication. The control of ectoparasites requires more elaborate techniques. Once they have succeeded in entering a mariculture farm, it is almost impossible to eliminate them from the system.
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              A new approach to visualize ecosystem health by using parasites.

               S Rückert,  H Palm (2009)
              A new approach is chosen to visualize ecosystem health by using parasite bioindicators in Segara Anakan Lagoon, a brackish water ecosystem at the southern Java coast, Indonesia. Three fish species (Mugil cephalus, Scatophagus argus, Epinephelus coioides) were collected in two different years and sampling sites and studied for ecto- and endoparasites. Additional data were taken for E. coioides from two further sites in Lampung Bay, Sumatra, and for E. fucoguttatus out of floating cages from a mariculture facility in the Thousand Islands, Jakarta Bay, North Java. The parasite fauna of fishes inside the lagoon was characterized by a high number of ecto- and a low number of endoparasites, the endoparasite diversity was relatively low and the prevalence of ectocommensalistic trichodinid ciliates was high. These parameters were chosen to indicate the biological conditions inside the lagoon. In E. coioides during rainy season, the prevalence of trichodinid ciliates was highest inside the lagoon (55%) compared with 27% in an open-net-cage mariculture and 5.7% in free-living specimens in Lampung Bay. The endoparasite diversity (Shannon-Wiener) was lowest in fish from Segara Anakan lagoon (0.66) compared with fish from an open-net-cage mariculture (0.71) and free-living specimens (1.39). Results for E. fuscoguttatus from the mariculture site in the Thousand Islands, a relatively undisturbed marine environment, demonstrated high parasite diversity (1.58) in the cultivated fish, a high number of endoparasites, and no trichodinids. A star graph is used to visualize the parasite composition for the different fishes, sampling sites, and conditions, using (1) the prevalence of trichodinid ciliates, (2) the ecto/endoparasite ratio and (3) the endoparasite diversity as bioindicators. The application of the star graph is suggested to be a suitable tool to visualize and monitor environmental health under high parasite biodiversity conditions within tropical ecosystems. It can also support a better communication to stake holders and decision makers in order to monitor environmental impact and change.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2013
                19 December 2013
                : 20
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2013/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum Cromwell Road London SW7 5BD UK
                [2 ] UMR 7138, Systématique, Adaptation, Évolution, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Case postale 51 55 rue Buffon 75231 Paris Cedex 05 France
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: rab@ 123456nhm.ac.uk
                [a]

                After January 2014: ISYEB, Institut de Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité (UMR 7205 CNRS, EPHE, MNHN, UPMC), Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Case postale 51, 55 rue Buffon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France

                Article
                parasite130088 10.1051/parasite/2013055
                10.1051/parasite/2013055
                3867101
                24351242
                © R.A. Bray and J.-L. Justine, published by EDP Sciences, 2013

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 13, Equations: 0, References: 52, Pages: 26
                Categories
                Research Article

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