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      Polymeric Micelles, a Promising Drug Delivery System to Enhance Bioavailability of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs

      1 , 2 , 1 , 3 , * , 3

      Journal of Drug Delivery

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

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          Abstract

          Oral administration is the most commonly used and readily accepted form of drug delivery; however, it is find that many drugs are difficult to attain enough bioavailability when administered via this route. Polymeric micelles (PMs) can overcome some limitations of the oral delivery acting as carriers able to enhance drug absorption, by providing (1) protection of the loaded drug from the harsh environment of the GI tract, (2) release of the drug in a controlled manner at target sites, (3) prolongation of the residence time in the gut by mucoadhesion, and (4) inhibition of efflux pumps to improve the drug accumulation. To explain the mechanisms for enhancement of oral bioavailability, we discussed the special stability of PMs, the controlled release properties of pH-sensitive PMs, the prolongation of residence time with mucoadhesive PMs, and the P-gp inhibitors commonly used in PMs, respectively. The primary purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential of PMs for delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs with bioavailability being well maintained.

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          Most cited references 205

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          Impact of nanotechnology on drug delivery.

          Nanotechnology is the engineering and manufacturing of materials at the atomic and molecular scale. In its strictest definition from the National Nanotechnology Initiative, nanotechnology refers to structures roughly in the 1-100 nm size regime in at least one dimension. Despite this size restriction, nanotechnology commonly refers to structures that are up to several hundred nanometers in size and that are developed by top-down or bottom-up engineering of individual components. Herein, we focus on the application of nanotechnology to drug delivery and highlight several areas of opportunity where current and emerging nanotechnologies could enable entirely novel classes of therapeutics.
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            ABC transporters: from microorganisms to man.

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              A review of stimuli-responsive nanocarriers for drug and gene delivery.

              Nanotechnology has shown tremendous promise in target-specific delivery of drugs and genes in the body. Although passive and active targeted-drug delivery has addressed a number of important issues, additional properties that can be included in nanocarrier systems to enhance the bioavailability of drugs at the disease site, and especially upon cellular internalization, are very important. A nanocarrier system incorporated with stimuli-responsive property (e.g., pH, temperature, or redox potential), for instance, would be amenable to address some of the systemic and intracellular delivery barriers. In this review, we discuss the role of stimuli-responsive nanocarrier systems for drug and gene delivery. The advancement in material science has led to design of a variety of materials, which are used for development of nanocarrier systems that can respond to biological stimuli. Temperature, pH, and hypoxia are examples of "triggers" at the diseased site that could be exploited with stimuli-responsive nanocarriers. With greater understanding of the difference between normal and pathological tissues and cells and parallel developments in material design, there is a highly promising role of stimuli-responsive nanocarriers for drug and gene delivery in the future.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                1School of Pharmaceutical Science, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China
                2Department of Pharmacy, Shandong Provincial Qian Foshan Hospital, Jinan 250014, China
                3Institute of Biopharmaceuticals of Shandong Province, Jinan 250101, China
                Author notes
                *Peixue Ling: lpx@ 123456sdfmg.com

                Academic Editor: Juan M. Irache

                Journal
                J Drug Deliv
                J Drug Deliv
                JDD
                Journal of Drug Delivery
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-3014
                2090-3022
                2013
                27 June 2013
                : 2013
                23936656
                3712247
                10.1155/2013/340315
                Copyright © 2013 Wei Xu et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Pharmaceutical chemistry

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