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      Childhood adherence to a potentially healthy and sustainable Nordic diet and later overweight: The Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

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          Abstract

          The New Nordic Diet (NND) is a potentially healthy and sustainable dietary pattern represented by locally available and traditionally consumed foods in the Northern countries. The diet has been commonly examined in adult populations, but less is known regarding its potential associations with overweight/obesity in children. We have previously developed child diet scores measuring compliance to the NND at child age 6 and 18 months and 3 and 7 years. In this study, we aimed to describe child and maternal characteristics and assess potential associations between the age‐specific diet scores and child overweight at 8 years. This study is based on the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), including 14,989 mother–child pairs and uses data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN). The scores measured NND compliance as a total score and categorized into low, medium and high NND compliance at each age point. Using logistic regression models, we investigated the association between each age‐specific score and the odds of overweight at 8 years. In crude analyses, adherence to the NND at 6 months was inversely associated with odds of overweight at 8 years in the continuous score (odds ratio = 0.95, 95% CI [0.91, 0.98]) and when comparing high versus low NND adherence (odds ratio = 0.81, 95% CI [0.70, 0.94]). The association was almost entirely attenuated in the adjusted models. In conclusion, child NND adherence up to 7 years of age was not associated with odds of overweight at 8 years in adjusted analyses.

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          Most cited references 53

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          Development, validation and utilisation of food-frequency questionnaires - a review.

          The purpose of this review is to provide guidance on the development, validation and use of food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) for different study designs. It does not include any recommendations about the most appropriate method for dietary assessment (e.g. food-frequency questionnaire versus weighed record). A comprehensive search of electronic databases was carried out for publications from 1980 to 1999. Findings from the review were then commented upon and added to by a group of international experts. Recommendations have been developed to aid in the design, validation and use of FFQs. Specific details of each of these areas are discussed in the text. FFQs are being used in a variety of ways and different study designs. There is no gold standard for directly assessing the validity of FFQs. Nevertheless, the outcome of this review should help those wishing to develop or adapt an FFQ to validate it for its intended use.
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            Consistent dietary patterns identified from childhood to adulthood: the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns Study.

            Dietary patterns are useful in nutritional epidemiology, providing a comprehensive alternative to the traditional approach based on single nutrients. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a prospective cohort study with a 21-year follow-up. At baseline, detailed quantitative information on subjects' food consumption was obtained using a 48 h dietary recall method (n 1768, aged 3-18 years). The interviews were repeated after 6 and 21 years (n 1200 and n 1037, respectively). We conducted a principal component analysis to identify major dietary patterns at each study point. A set of two similar patterns was recognised throughout the study. Pattern 1 was positively correlated with consumption of traditional Finnish foods, such as rye, potatoes, milk, butter, sausages and coffee, and negatively correlated with fruit, berries and dairy products other than milk. Pattern 1 type of diet was more common among male subjects, smokers and those living in rural areas. Pattern 2, predominant among female subjects, non-smokers and in urban areas, was characterised by more health-conscious food choices such as vegetables, legumes and nuts, tea, rye, cheese and other dairy products, and also by consumption of alcoholic beverages. Tracking of the pattern scores was observed, particularly among subjects who were adolescents at baseline. Of those originally belonging to the uppermost quintile of pattern 1 and 2 scores, 41 and 38 % respectively, persisted in the same quintile 21 years later. Our results suggest that food behaviour and concrete food choices are established already in childhood or adolescence and may significantly track into adulthood.
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              Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey.

              To develop an internationally acceptable definition of child overweight and obesity, specifying the measurement, the reference population, and the age and sex specific cut off points. International survey of six large nationally representative cross sectional growth studies. Brazil, Great Britain, Hong Kong, the Netherlands, Singapore, and the United States. 97 876 males and 94 851 females from birth to 25 years of age. Body mass index (weight/height(2)). For each of the surveys, centile curves were drawn that at age 18 years passed through the widely used cut off points of 25 and 30 kg/m(2) for adult overweight and obesity. The resulting curves were averaged to provide age and sex specific cut off points from 2-18 years. The proposed cut off points, which are less arbitrary and more internationally based than current alternatives, should help to provide internationally comparable prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in children.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                nina.c.overby@uia.no
                Journal
                Matern Child Nutr
                Matern Child Nutr
                10.1111/(ISSN)1740-8709
                MCN
                Maternal & Child Nutrition
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                1740-8695
                1740-8709
                25 October 2020
                April 2021
                : 17
                : 2 ( doiID: 10.1111/mcn.v17.2 )
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Nutrition and Public Health University of Agder Kristiansand Norway
                [ 2 ] Department of Health and Inequalities and Centre for Evaluation of Public Health Measures Norwegian Institute of Public Health Oslo Norway
                [ 3 ] Department of Sport Science and Physical Education University of Agder Kristiansand Norway
                [ 4 ] Faculty of Health Sciences University of Bristol Bristol UK
                [ 5 ] Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health Norwegian Institute of Public Health Oslo Norway
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Nina Cecilie Øverby, Department of Nutrition and Public Health, University of Agder, Universitetsveien 25, 4630 Kristiansand, Norway.

                Email: nina.c.overby@ 123456uia.no

                Article
                MCN13101 MCN-05-20-OA-4416.R1
                10.1111/mcn.13101
                7988855
                33103349
                © 2020 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 12, Words: 9759
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: University of Agder , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100012704;
                Funded by: Ministry of Education and Research (Kunnskapsdepartementet) , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100009245;
                Funded by: Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care services
                Categories
                Original Article
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                April 2021
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.0.0 mode:remove_FC converted:24.03.2021

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